Based on 26 in-depth interviews with German-born second-generation adults of Turkish parentage who have relocated to the Istanbul region, this paper consists of three parts corresponding to three questions regarding: (i) their memories of growing up in Germany, (ii) the circumstances and motivations surrounding their ‘return’ and (iii) their experiences of life in Turkey since return. We draw on the conceptual notion of ‘third space’ to propose that the secondgeneration returnees occupy a fourth socio-cultural space that is distinct from German society, Turkish society and the Turkish immigrant community in Germany.
This paper describes the circumstances surrounding the migration of older Latvian women and their multi-dimensional lives as economic migrants and as distant carers and supporters of diverse family members who remain in Latvia. In post-Soviet Latvia, especially since the 2008 financial crisis and the austerity measures which took away hope for a decent old-age pension, older women migrate abroad in order to salvage their economic wellbeing and support their multi-generation families, which can run to four generations – their children and grandchildren plus, often, their elderly parents. Migration enables these women to maintain multidirectional flows of care and also to achieve economic and psychosocial independence. Therefore, care practices that reach four generations put the figure of the grandmother at the core of transnational care relations. Research evidence for this paper comprises 50 in-depth interviews with older Latvian migrant women aged from their mid-40s to their late 60s in the UK and elsewhere. The paper demonstrates the complexity and richness of these women’s working lives, built around enhanced economic wellbeing, multiple and transnational caring responsibilities, and a new sense of self-worth and empowerment.
emotional and psychosocial dimensions of well-being among young–adult Spanish migrants in the London region
Carmen Leon Himmelstine and Russell King
Based on 20 in-depth interviews with young Spaniards aged 20–35 years in the London region, this article explores the linked processes of migration, adaptation, and young–adult life transitions from the perspective of psychosocial well-being. Although most young Spaniards have moved for economic reasons, they also have personal and emotional motivations. The article explores factors that mediated their well-being experiences in the destination setting, such as the role of social networks and the achievement of their aspirations. Aspirations were not only material, in the form of a steady and higher income, but also factors such as language improvement, reuniting with a partner or friend, and being independent from their family. The findings of the paper contribute new insights into the factors that condition the relationship between migration and psychosocial well-being during the transition of young people to adulthood.