The purpose of this study is to analyse and present the causes of the differences in crude utilization rate in cardiac implantation electronic devices, specifically pacemakers and automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, across 5 European countries, with a specific emphasis on Slovenia.
Based on the results of the analysis of the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices across countries studied in MedtecHTA project, the targeted interviews were conducted to explain the factors that impact the differences and explain data in Slovenia.
The reasons for the differences in crude utilization rate across 5 European countries were multiple: the first group of differences refers to the coding system and linkages between coding and financing of health care. The second group of reasons can be qualitatively ascribed to the economic situation, financial situation in health care, and its impact on decision-making. The last reason is the non-existence of the golden rule for optimal crude utilisation rate.
It is evident that the differences in the uptake of cardiac implantation electronic devices among the countries are of organisational nature: they refer to the system of coding, the importance attached to correct coding practices, the link between coding and financing of health care as well as the availability of private clinics and private insurance. According to the interviews, the economic development of the country also impacts those differences, whereas the differences in clinical practice and guidelines are claimed not to play a role in the explanation of the differences.
This paper assesses the effects of agricultural payments on changes in farmland bird diversity in Slovenia. Diversity was measured by Shannon index, while the impacts were estimated with the first-difference estimator on panel data for municipalities with and without special protection areas for birds. The effects of agricultural payments on farmland biodiversity require that the balance of financial instruments be taken into account when the agricultural policy is being drafted. The effects of payments in municipalities with and without special protection areas indicate the need to consider the landscape perspective and adapt schemes to landscape type while preparing the national agricultural policy.