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  • Author: Plamen Petrov x
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Open access

Elena Atanaskova Petrov, Ksenija Ilievska, Plamen Trojacanec, Irena Celeska, Goran Nikolovski, Ivica Gjurovski and Toni Dovenski

Abstract

Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality, if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples). Aged female patients (12 - 13 years) are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumours have never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma) were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumours is elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

Open access

Elena Atanaskova Petrov, Ivica Gjurovski, Trpe Ristoski, Goran Nikolovski, Pandorce Trenkoska, Plamen Trojacanec, Ksenija Ilievska, Toni Dovenski and Gordana Petrushevska

Abstract

Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of monoclonal antibodies against nuclear estrogen and progestin receptors. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ER receptors in malignant canine mammary tumors and to identify their association with the clinical course of the tumor. Mammary tumor samples have been obtained by mastectomy from dogs presented at our clinic. Detailed clinical examination, CBC and basic serum biochemical profile were performed in all patients. Surgery was the only treatment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of estrogen α receptors (ERα) was performed on 8 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, using the PT LINK immunoperoxidase technique. Histopathological examination of the mammary tumor samples (n=11) revealed tubular adenocarcinoma (n=6,54.5%) and ductal adenocarcinoma (n=3, 27.3%), one patient with benign adenoma and one with mastitis. Patients with positive ER tumors are alive, without remission, while 3 of the patients that were ER negative died due to lung metastases. According to our results, it can be concluded that the appearance and development of canine mammary tumors is highly connected with ovarian steroid hormones and that immunostaining of the tumors may be used as a good prognostic parameter in these patients.