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Elena Atanaskova Petrov, Ksenija Ilievska, Plamen Trojacanec, Irena Celeska, Goran Nikolovski, Ivica Gjurovski and Toni Dovenski


Mammary tumours are the second most frequent neoplasia in dogs, mainly affecting older female patients. Approximately 50% of the mammary tumours are malignant with high percentage of mortality, if not treated in time. The aim of this study was to analyze the data of canine patients with mammary tumours, to evaluate the type of tumours, as well as the relationship between tumour incidence and dogs’ age, reproductive cycle and sterilization. The survey was used to retrieve the information in the period of two years from the patient data base of the University Veterinary Hospital at the Faculty of veterinary medicine in Skopje. Patients included in this survey were subjected to routine clinical investigation and additional laboratory tests (cytological examination, x-rays imaging, CBC and biochemical profile, histopathology of the tumor samples). Aged female patients (12 - 13 years) are the most susceptible category for development of mammary tumours. The reproductive history showed that five of the patients with malignant mammary tumours have never whelped and were not treated with any exogenous hormones. Malignant tumours (adenocarcinoma) were diagnosed in 90% of the patients. Three patients died due to lung metastasis. Late diagnosis is one of the major problems that results in lethal outcome due to lung metastases. Since ovarian steroids play an important role in the aetiology, the most effective prevention of mammary tumours is elective ovariectomy of the bitch at an early age.

Open access

Elena Atanaskova Petrov, Ivica Gjurovski, Trpe Ristoski, Goran Nikolovski, Pandorce Trenkoska, Plamen Trojacanec, Ksenija Ilievska, Toni Dovenski and Gordana Petrushevska


Mammary tumors are among the most common neoplasms in intact female dogs. They have a complex morphology, usually affecting middle age and older bitches. Almost 50% of the mammary tumors in dogs are malignant neoplasms. Prognosis is based on several factors: stage, age, tumor size, metastasis, histopathology, ovariectomy status and hormone-receptor activity. Immunohistochemical (IHC) measurement has become increasingly an important diagnostic and prognostic parameter, with the development of monoclonal antibodies against nuclear estrogen and progestin receptors. The aim of this study was to detect the presence of ER receptors in malignant canine mammary tumors and to identify their association with the clinical course of the tumor. Mammary tumor samples have been obtained by mastectomy from dogs presented at our clinic. Detailed clinical examination, CBC and basic serum biochemical profile were performed in all patients. Surgery was the only treatment. Histopathological examination and immunohistochemical detection of estrogen α receptors (ERα) was performed on 8 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples, using the PT LINK immunoperoxidase technique. Histopathological examination of the mammary tumor samples (n=11) revealed tubular adenocarcinoma (n=6,54.5%) and ductal adenocarcinoma (n=3, 27.3%), one patient with benign adenoma and one with mastitis. Patients with positive ER tumors are alive, without remission, while 3 of the patients that were ER negative died due to lung metastases. According to our results, it can be concluded that the appearance and development of canine mammary tumors is highly connected with ovarian steroid hormones and that immunostaining of the tumors may be used as a good prognostic parameter in these patients.

Open access

Cecilia Costa, Ralph Büchler, Stefan Berg, Malgorzata Bienkowska, Maria Bouga, Dragan Bubalo, Leonidas Charistos, Yves Le Conte, Maja Drazic, Winfried Dyrba, Janja Fillipi, Fani Hatjina, Evgeniya Ivanova, Nikola Kezic, Hrisula Kiprijanovska, Michalis Kokinis, Seppo Korpela, Per Kryger, Marco Lodesani, Marina Meixner, Beata Panasiuk, Hermann Pechhacker, Plamen Petrov, Eugenia Oliveri, Lauri Ruottinen, Aleksandar Uzunov, Giacomo Vaccari and Jerzy Wilde

A Europe-Wide Experiment for Assessing the Impact of Genotype-Environment Interactions on the Vitality and Performance of Honey Bee Colonies: Experimental Design and Trait Evaluation

An international experiment to estimate the importance of genotype-environment interactions on vitality and performance of honey bees and on colony losses was run between July 2009 and March 2012. Altogether 621 bee colonies, involving 16 different genetic origins of European honey bees, were tested in 21 locations spread in 11 countries. The genetic strains belonged to the subspecies A. m. carnica, A. m. ligustica, A. m. macedonica, A. m. mellifera, A. m. siciliana. At each location, the local strain of bees was tested together with at least two "foreign" origins, with a minimum starting number of 10 colonies per origin. The common test protocol for all the colonies took into account colony survival, bee population in spring, summer and autumn, honey production, pollen collection, swarming, gentleness, hygienic behaviour, Varroa destructor infestation, Nosema spp. infection and viruses. Data collection was performed according to uniform methods. No chemical treatments against Varroa or other diseases were applied during the experiment. This article describes the details of the experiment set-up and the work protocol.