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  • Author: Piotr Markowski x
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Sauna-induced body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men


Study aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between basic somatic features (body mass and height) and body mass loss in physically inactive young women and men exposed to thermal stress in a dry sauna.

Materials and methods: The research was conducted in 2015 on 685 first-year full-time students (333 women, 352 men), aged 19–20 years old. Nude body mass was measured after the students dried off before and after using the sauna.

Results: An analysis of regression equations indicated that an increase in the body mass of women and men leads to a significant increase in sauna-induced body mass loss. On the other hand, body mass loss decreased with an increase in height in women and men, but to a smaller extent. From among the tested somatic features, body height and body mass, body mass had a decisive influence on body mass loss. Body height had a minimal and statistically non-significant impact on body mass loss.

Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that heavier individuals have an increased risk of dehydration and hyperthermia. Therefore, they should pay close attention to replenishing fluids lost in the sauna. The determination of body mass loss values after a visit to a dry sauna has practical significance because it supports the estimation of the fluid volume required for the maintenance of correct water balance.

Open access
International Standards for the 3‐Minute Burpee Test: High‐ Intensity Motor Performance


The aim of this study was to develop international standards for evaluating strength endurance with the use of the 3‐Minute Burpee Test. The results of 3862 women (Poland – 2502, Great Britain – 500, Hungary – 412, Serbia – 448) and 5971 men (Poland – 4517, Great Britain – 500, Hungary – 451, Serbia – 503) aged 18‐25 (mean age of 20.36 ± 0.94 and 20.05 ± 1.25 y, respectively) were collated between 2004 and 2018. The students’ strength endurance was evaluated in the 3‐Minute Burpee Test. The results were expressed on a uniform scale with the 3‐sigma rule which was used to develop the T‐score scale for the 3‐Minute Burpee Test. Men completed 56.69 cycles/3 min and women – 48.84/3 min on average. The best male participant completed 82 burpees, and the best female participant – 73 burpees. The majority of male and female participants (66.71% and 68.18%, respectively) were characterized by average strength endurance in the 3‐Minute Burpee Test (range of scores: 47‐66 and 37‐60 cycles/3 min, respectively). Very good strength endurance (76‐85 and 72‐83 cycles/3 min, respectively) was noted in the smallest percentage of male and female participants (0.52% and 0.26%, respectively). Similar studies should be carried out in other countries and in different age groups to develop objective international classification standards for variously‐aged individuals.

Open access
The Assessment Of The Risk Of Allergenicity Of ‘Sabina’ And ‘Debreceni Bötermö’ Sour Cherry Cvs (Prunus Cerasus L.) In A Guinea Pig Model


The allergic reactions to fruits are lesser known among food sensitivities. The most common fruits belonging to the Rosaceae family that might cause allergic reactions are apples, pears and peaches. However, little is known about the potential allergic reactions caused by another member of the Rosaceae, the cherry. The aim of this study was to assess the risk of any allergic reaction or food hypersensitivity resulting from topical application and chronic oral administration of cherry fruits. The cherry fruits ‘Sabina’ cv. were produced in the orchard in Dąbrowice according to the principles of integrated (IFP) and organic (OR) productions. Fruits of ‘Debreceni Bötermö’ cv. were produced in Dąbrowice (IFP), and in the orchard in Nowy Dwór (OR). The experiments were performed on 65 outbred young, adult, white albinotic guinea pigs (Dankin Hartley). Three procedures were applied: I. Guinea-Pig Maximization Test (GPMT); II. Chronic administration of fruits and III. Skin prick (Dreborg) test. The skin reactions based on GPMT or Dreborg tests revealed no differences between the two cherry cultivars ‘Sabina’ and ‘Debreceni’ obtained from integrated or organic production. Similarly, it was not observed of any effect of cultivars of cherries nor the type of fruits production on the guinea pig skin reaction as a result of chronic feeding with fruits.

Open access