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  • Author: Paweł Rutkowski x
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Open access

Mariusz Czapliński, Paweł Sokólski, Kazimierz Duzinkiewicz, Robert Piotrowski and Tomasz Rutkowski

Abstract

The pressurizer water level control system in nuclear power plant with pressurized water reactor (PWR) is responsible for coolant mass balance. The main control goal is to stabilize the water level at a reference value and to suppress the effect of time-varying disturbances (e.g. coolant leakage in primary circuit pipeline system). In the process of PWR power plant operation incorrect water level may disturb pressure control or may cause damage to electric heaters which could threaten plant security and stability. In modern reactors standard PID controllers are used to control water level in a pressurizer. This paper describes the performance of state feedback integral controller (SFIC) with reduced-order Luenberger state observer designed for water level control in a pressurizer and compares it to the standard PID controller. All steps from modeling of a pressurizer through control design to implementation and simulation testing in Matlab/Simulink environment are detailed in the paper.

Open access

Piotr Martyniuk, Małgorzata Kopytko, Paweł Madejczyk, Aleksandra Henig, Kacper Grodecki, Waldemar Gawron and Jarosław Rutkowski

Abstract

The paper reports on a long-wave infrared (cut-off wavelength ~ 9 μm) HgCdTe detector operating under nbiased condition and room temperature (300 K) for both short response time and high detectivity operation. The ptimal structure in terms of the response time and detectivity versus device architecture was shown. The response time of the long-wave (active layer Cd composition, xCd = 0.19) HgCdTe detector for 300 K was calculated at a level of τs ~ 1 ns for zero bias condition, while the detectivity − at a level of D* ~ 109 cmHz1/2/W assuming immersion. It was presented that parameters of the active layer and P+ barrier layer play a critical role in order to reach τs ≤ 1 ns. An extra series resistance related to the processing (RS+ in a range 5−10 Ω) increased the response time more than two times (τs ~ 2.3 ns).