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  • Author: Osman Yılmaz x
  • Life Sciences x
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This study determined the presence of nitric oxide synthesis isoforms (nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS) in thoracic spinal cord segments and nodose ganglia of rats with gamma-irradiated livers.

Material and Methods

Male rats (n = 32) were divided into equal groups A, B, C, and D. In group A, the controls, no radiation was applied, while groups B, C, and D received 10 Gy of ionising gamma radiation. The rats of group B were euthanized at the end of the first day (d1), those of group C on the second day (d2), and those of group D on the third day (d3). The liver, spinal cord segments, and nodose ganglion tissues were dissected and fixed, and the liver sections were examined histopathologically. The other tissues were observed through a light microscope.


Regeneration occurred at the end of d3 in hepatocytes which were radiation-damaged at the end of d1 and d2. On d1, some nNOS-positive staining was found in the neuronal cells of laminae I–III of the spinal cord and in neurons of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, some staining was observed in lamina X of the spinal cord, while none of note was in the nodose ganglion. Dense iNOS-positive staining was seen on d1 in the ependymal cells of the spinal cord and in the glial cells of the nodose ganglion, and on d3, there was still considerable iNOS staining in both tissues. There was clear eNOS-positive staining in the capillary endothelial cells of the spinal cord and light diffuse cytoplasmic staining in the neurons of the nodose ganglion on d1, and on d3, intense eNOS-positive staining was visible in several endothelial cells of the spinal cord, while light nuclear staining was recognised in the neurons of the nodose ganglion.


The nNOS, iNOS, and eNOS isoforms are activated in the spinal cord and nodose ganglion of rats after ionising radiation insult to the liver.


Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) is the most farmed freshwater fish worldwide. In recent years, use of natural products in fish diets has become popular in aquaculture, to improve fish health and growth performance. The present study investigated the effects of essential oil from the leaves of Monterey cypress (Cupressus macrocarpa; CMEO) on growth performance and blood parameters in common carp fingerlings. Identification of 96.1% of the CMEO total volatile components was achieved, with the highest contents for terpinen-4-ol and α-pinene, at 22.9% and 47.7%, respectively. After 60 days of feeding of the fingerlings with supplemented diets without CMEO (CMEO 0%) and with CMEO at 0.5%, 0.75% and 1%, the best growth performance was seen for those fish fed with the CMEO 0.5% diet. No significant differences were seen for the haematological parameters and blood cell indices versus CMEO 0%. Serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and glutamic pyruvic transaminase were significantly reduced in the fingerlings fed with the CMEO 0.5% diet versus CMEO 0%. Thus, CMEO oil as a 0.5% dietary supplement can be used to improve the growth performance and health status of the common carp without any adverse effects seen.