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  • Author: Oleksandr H. Minchenko x
  • Neurobiology x
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Expression of genes encoding IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBPs in blood of obese adolescents with insulin resistance

Abstract

Objective. The development of obesity and its metabolic complications is associated with dys-regulation of various intrinsic mechanisms, which control basic metabolic processes via changes in the expression of numerous regulatory genes. The main goal of this work was to study the association between the expression of insulin-like growth factors (IGF1 and IGF2) and IGF-binding proteins and insulin resistance in obese adolescents for evaluation of possible contribution of these genes in development of insulin resistance.

Methods. The expression of IGF1, IGF2, and IGFBPs mRNA was measured in blood of obese adolescents with normal insulin sensitivity and insulin resistance in comparison with the normal (control) individuals.

Results. In the blood of obese adolescents with normal insulin sensitivity the expression of IGFBP4, IGFBP5 and HTRA1 genes was down-regulated, but IGFBP2 and IGFBP7 genes up-regulated as compared to control (normal) group. At the same time, no significant changes in IGF1 and IGF2 gene expressions in this group of obese adolescents were found. Insulin resistance in obese adolescents led to up-regulation of IGF2, IGFBP2, and IGFBP7 gene expressions as well as to down-regulation of the expression of IGF1, IGFBP5 and HTRA1 genes in the blood in comparison with the obese patients, which have normal insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, the level of IGFBP4 gene expression was similar in both groups of obese adolescents.

Conclusions. Results of this investigation provide evidence that insulin resistance in obese adolescents is associated with gene specific changes in the expression of IGF1, IGF2, IGFBP2, IGFBP5, IGFBP7, and HTRA1 genes and these changes possibly contribute to the development of glucose intolerance and insulin resistance.

Open access
Hypoxic regulation of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 gene expressions in ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present investigation was to study the effect of hypoxia on the expression of genes encoding endothelin-1 (EDN1) and its cognate receptors (EDNRA and EDNRB) as well as endothelin converting enzyme 1 (ECE1) in U87 glioma cells in response to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by ERN1/IRE1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of glioma growth through ERN1 and hypoxia.

Methods. The expression level of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 genes as well as micro-RNA miR-19, miR-96, and miR-206 was studied in control and ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells under hypoxia by quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results. It was shown that the expression level of EDN1, EDNRA, EDNRB, and ECE1 genes was up-regulated in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells in comparison with the control glioma cells, being more significant for endothelin-1. We also observed down-regulation of microRNA miR-206, miR-96, and miR-19a, which have specific binding sites in mRNA EDN1, EDNRA, and EDNRB, correspondingly, and can participate in posttranscriptional regulation of these mRNA expressions. Furthermore, inhibition of ERN1 endoribonuclease lead to up-regulation of EDNRA and ECE1 gene expressions and down-regulation of the expression level of EDN1 and EDNRB genes in glioma cells. Thus, the expression of EDNRA and ECE1 genes is regulated by ERN1 endoribonuclease, but EDN1 and EDNRB genes preferentially by ERN1 protein kinase. We have also shown that hypoxia enhanced the expression of EDN1, EDNRA, and ECE1 genes and that knockdown of ERN1 signaling enzyme function significantly modified the response of all studied gene expressions to hypoxia. Thus, effect of hypoxia on the expression level of EDN1 and ECE1 genes was significantly or completely reduced in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells since the expression of EDNRA gene was down-regulated under hypoxia. Moreover, hypoxia is induced the expression of EDNRB gene in ERN1 knockdown glioma cells.

Conclusions. Results of this investigation demonstrate that ERN1 knockdown significantly increased the expression of endothelin-1 and its receptors as well as ECE1 genes by different mechanisms and that all studied gene expressions were sensitive to hypoxia. It is possible that hypoxic regulation of the expression of these genes is a result of complex interaction of variable ERN1 related transcription and regulatory factors with HIF1A and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth.

Open access
Effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoding glucocorticoid receptor and some related factors in ERN1-knockdown U87 glioma cells

Abstract

Objective. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of glucose deprivation on the expression of genes encoded glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) and some related proteins (NR3C2, AHR, NRIP1, NNT, ARHGAP35, SGK1, and SGK3) in U87 glioma cells in response to inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by ERN1/IRE1 (endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1/inositol requiring enzyme 1) for evaluation of their possible significance in the control of glioma growth through endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling mediated by IRE1 and glucose deprivation.

Methods. The expression of NR3C1, NR3C2, AHR, NRIP1, NNT, ARHGAP35, SGK1, and SGK3 genes in U87 glioma cells transfected by empty vector pcDNA3.1 (control cells) and cells without ERN1 signaling enzyme function (transfected by dnERN1) under glucose deprivation was studied by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction.

Results. It was shown that the expression level of NR3C2, AHR, SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes was up-regulated in control U87 glioma cells under glucose deprivation condition in comparison with the control cells growing with glucose. At the same time, the expression of NRIP1 gene is down-regulated in these glioma cells under glucose deprivation, but NR3C1 and ARHGAP35 genes was resistant to this experimental condition. We also showed that inhibition of ERN1 signaling enzyme function significantly modified the response of most studied gene expressions to glucose deprivation condition. Thus, effect of glucose deprivation on the expression level of NR3C2, AHR, and SGK1 genes was significantly stronger in ERN1 knockdown U87 glioma cells since the expression of NNT gene was resistant to glucose deprivation condition. Moreover, the inhibition of ERN1 enzymatic activities in U87 glioma cells led to up-regulation of ARHGAP35 gene expression and significant down-regulation of the expression of SGK3 gene in response to glucose deprivation condition.

Conclusions. Results of this study demonstrated that glucose deprivation did not change the expression level of NR3C1 gene but it significantly affected the expression of NR3C2, AHR, NRIP, SGK1, SGK3, and NNT genes in vector-transfected U87 glioma cells in gene specific manner and possibly contributed to the control of glioma growth since the expression of most studied genes in glucose deprivation condition was significantly dependent on the functional activity of IRE1 signaling enzyme.

Open access