The aim of this study was to evaluate the mandibular morphometric measurements of male and female rabbits using three-dimensional digital model and real bone measurements. Ten (5 female, 5 male) rabbits with no bone deformities were used in the study. Three-dimensional models were produced from two-dimensional microcomputed tomography images of the rabbit’s mandible. Biometric data were obtained by using the same measuring points over both three-dimensional models and real bone samples. There was only a significant main effect of gender for the greatest length of the mandible, length from aboral border of the alveolus of third molar teeth to infradentale, length of the diastema, height of the vertical ramus (measured in projection), distance from the incisor to the oral border of mental foramen, distance from aboral border of mental foramen to caudal border of mandible, distance between retroalveolar foramen and caudal border of mandible. For these measurements, calculated data for females are significantly higher than the males (p<0.05). It was found to be statistically significant between methods only for the length of the cheek tooth row and height of the vertical ramus values (p<0.05). In this study, it was understood that 3D morphometric measurements for bone tissue could be used with accuracy and reliability especially in anatomy and orthodontics areas as an alternative to traditional measurements made with a digital caliper.
The knee joint is not only the most important and complex structure to present during anatomy lectures, but also a significant region for radiologists and orthopedicians. The objectives of this paper are: 1) to evaluate the efficacy of plastinated specimens by measuring colorimetric differentiation and 2) to compare the anatomical structures of the images obtained from computed tomography (CT) and silicone plastination cross-sections and perform three-dimensional (3D) reconstructed models of the specimens. A total of 16 knee joints selected from the 10% formalin fixed/dissected group (n=6), non-fixed/dissected group (n=6) and non-dissected whole knee joint group (n=4) were scanned by CT and plastinated by using the S10B silicone technique. The color changes of the structures were quantitatively determined with the colorimeter device. Plastinated whole knee joints were cut transversally with a band saw and compared with CT images. Finally, 3D reconstruction of the knee joints was performed from CT images with the 3D reconstruction program. There were statistically significant differences between the fixed and non-fixed groups in terms of color changes (p<0.001). The anatomical structures were identified and matched in the cross-sections of plastinates and corresponding CT images. It was observed that plastinated samples were elastic, durable and non-hazardous specimens to use in the veterinary orthopedics and anatomy courses and lectures. It has been found that fixation was useful for the final product morphology. It is thought that the 3D images obtained from this study will support comprehension of the relationships between the bones, muscles, and ligaments.
Measurement of growth performances in fish is carried out in stressful and unnatural environment. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effect of four different water-borne anesthetic agents. The fish (Ave. wt. 400.3±7.12 g) were divided into four groups in the glass tanks (80×48×30 cm) containing 80 L of dechlorinated bore water. For the first group we used clove oil (CO) and anesthetic agents used for other three groups were as follows: second group- lidocaine 1% (LC), III groupisoflourane (IF), IV group-halothane (HT). During experiment, water quality parameters (to, pH, О2, and NO3) were recorded. The desired concentration of anesthetics was established andinduction time, maintenance and recovery time were recorded. In two groups out of four (LC and HT) time of induction was longer approximately with 1 minute and time of recovery was shorter with 30 seconds in comparison with other two groups (CO and IF) where the time for both was 3 minutes. It could be concluded that the anesthetic time for each of the protocols used was about 4-5 minutes and allowed to measure the growth performance. An effective and safe agent is 1% lidocaine used as a water-based anesthetic at 100 mg.L-1. Isoflurane can be used with caution in small carp because there is a risk of overdose. We recommend the anesthetic clove oil protocol.