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Open access

Oľga Kyselovičová, Jana Labudová, Erika Zemková, Dušana Čierna and Michal Jeleň


Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10) in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11) and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10) between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH), weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and % body fat (% BF). The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximum heart rate (HRmax) were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis) with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02). Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02) and (p = .00), and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01), BMI (p = .01) and the % BF (p = .00). These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.

Open access

Erika Zemková, Michal Jeleň, Gábor Ollé, Tomáš Vilman and Dušan Hamar


Purpose. The study compared power during concentric-only and countermovement (CM) bench press with different ranges of motion (ROM) on a stable and unstable surface. Methods. A group of 22 fit men performed three repetitions of 1) full ROM concentric-only bench press, 2) full ROM CM bench press, 3) half ROM concentric-only bench press, and 4) half ROM CM bench press, on a bench (stable) and Swiss ball (unstable) at 60% 1RM. The FiTRO Dyne Premium system was used to monitor force and velocity and calculate power. Mean values of power during the acceleration and the entire concentric phases were analyzed. Results. No significant differences were found in mean power during concentric-only bench press on the bench and Swiss ball performed at half ROM and full ROM. Likewise, mean power during the concentric phase of half-range CM bench press on the bench and Swiss ball did not differ significantly. However, power values during full-range CM bench press were significantly higher on the bench than on Swiss ball. These differences were even more pronounced for mean power during the acceleration phase of full-range CM bench press on the bench compared with the Swiss ball. Contrary to this, these values did not differ significantly when the barbell was lifted during half ROM bench press on the bench and Swiss ball. Conclusions. Power was significantly lower during full-range CM bench press on the Swiss ball than on the bench, however, values did not differ significantly during stable and unstable half-range CM bench press.