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  • Author: Marija Vranješ x
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Aflatoxin M1 Transfer Rate from Milk into Cheese and Whey During the Production of Hard Cheese


The aim of this study was to investigate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) transfer from naturally contaminated raw milk into cheese and whey, during the production of Livanjski cheese (hard cheese type). Raw milk samples were collected from 4 farms in Serbia. The samples were then tested for AFM1 content and were later used for hard cheese production. Four cheese samples were produced, and the matching whey samples were also collected. The milk samples included two samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level (0.077±0.009 and 0.118±0.008 µg/kg) and the other two samples below the maximum level of 0.05 µg/kg (0.021±0.002 and 0.034±0.004 µg/kg). Regarding AFM1 transfer into cheese from the milk samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level, the rate was approximately 4-fold (383% and 410%). On the other hand, in the cheese samples made from milk containing AFM1 below the EU maximum level, almost 10-fold levels of AFM1 content in milk were found (transfer rates of 934% and 961%). As for the whey samples, AFM1 levels were below the levels found in the milk samples (transfer rates of 78%, 74%, 68% and 57%). The difference in the transfer rates for the cheese made from the milk samples contaminated at different levels may indicate the possibility that the AFM1 transfer rate from milk into cheese depends on the content of this toxin in milk.

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The Impact of Organic Agriculture on Biodiversity Conservation and Milk Quality for Traditional Cheese Production


Organic farming represents agricultural practice that could contribute to the preservation of biological diversity and breeding of cows with the most desired milk quality attributes. Milk composition could vary widely according to genetic diversity of the animals and different feeding systems. These are related to higher dry matter content, fat, protein and a more favorable ratio of the saturated/unsaturated fatty acids, which is important in traditional cheese production. Standard chemical analyzes were performed and this paper shows the differences in the chemical properties and the fatty acid profile of milk, depending on the different breeds and breeding methods of animals. Simmental milk (indoors) was most abundant in dry matter and fat (13.01 and 4.30%, respectively) while protein and casein level was the highest in the Busha milk (3.67 and 2.63%, respectively). Holstein Friesian milk (organic) possessed a more constant composition and, together with Busha appropriate hygienic quality of milk (low level of somatic cells and total bacteria count). Also, milk from Holstein Friesian cows (organic) was disposed with better nutritional quality and more desirable fatty acid profile (SFA (63.40%), MUFA (30.79%) and PUFA (5.72 %)). On the other hand, Holstein Friesian (conventional) milk contained SFA (67.45%), MUFA (29.27%) and PUFA (3.28%) while Simmental (indoors) higher values of SFA (71.21%) and less MUFA (25.39%) and PUFA (3.40%). There are various ways to preserve biodiversity and the application of organic production standards in the traditional cheese production contributes to obtaining safer, quality products which are more recognizable on the market.

Open access