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  • Author: Marija Vranješ x
  • Business and Economics x
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Aflatoxin M1 Transfer Rate from Milk into Cheese and Whey During the Production of Hard Cheese


The aim of this study was to investigate aflatoxin M1 (AFM1) transfer from naturally contaminated raw milk into cheese and whey, during the production of Livanjski cheese (hard cheese type). Raw milk samples were collected from 4 farms in Serbia. The samples were then tested for AFM1 content and were later used for hard cheese production. Four cheese samples were produced, and the matching whey samples were also collected. The milk samples included two samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level (0.077±0.009 and 0.118±0.008 µg/kg) and the other two samples below the maximum level of 0.05 µg/kg (0.021±0.002 and 0.034±0.004 µg/kg). Regarding AFM1 transfer into cheese from the milk samples containing AFM1 above the EU maximum level, the rate was approximately 4-fold (383% and 410%). On the other hand, in the cheese samples made from milk containing AFM1 below the EU maximum level, almost 10-fold levels of AFM1 content in milk were found (transfer rates of 934% and 961%). As for the whey samples, AFM1 levels were below the levels found in the milk samples (transfer rates of 78%, 74%, 68% and 57%). The difference in the transfer rates for the cheese made from the milk samples contaminated at different levels may indicate the possibility that the AFM1 transfer rate from milk into cheese depends on the content of this toxin in milk.

Open access
The Impact of Organic Agriculture on Biodiversity Conservation and Milk Quality for Traditional Cheese Production


Organic farming represents agricultural practice that could contribute to the preservation of biological diversity and breeding of cows with the most desired milk quality attributes. Milk composition could vary widely according to genetic diversity of the animals and different feeding systems. These are related to higher dry matter content, fat, protein and a more favorable ratio of the saturated/unsaturated fatty acids, which is important in traditional cheese production. Standard chemical analyzes were performed and this paper shows the differences in the chemical properties and the fatty acid profile of milk, depending on the different breeds and breeding methods of animals. Simmental milk (indoors) was most abundant in dry matter and fat (13.01 and 4.30%, respectively) while protein and casein level was the highest in the Busha milk (3.67 and 2.63%, respectively). Holstein Friesian milk (organic) possessed a more constant composition and, together with Busha appropriate hygienic quality of milk (low level of somatic cells and total bacteria count). Also, milk from Holstein Friesian cows (organic) was disposed with better nutritional quality and more desirable fatty acid profile (SFA (63.40%), MUFA (30.79%) and PUFA (5.72 %)). On the other hand, Holstein Friesian (conventional) milk contained SFA (67.45%), MUFA (29.27%) and PUFA (3.28%) while Simmental (indoors) higher values of SFA (71.21%) and less MUFA (25.39%) and PUFA (3.40%). There are various ways to preserve biodiversity and the application of organic production standards in the traditional cheese production contributes to obtaining safer, quality products which are more recognizable on the market.

Open access
Identification of Key Determinants of Satisfaction of Users of Electronic Banking Services


Under the conditions of increased competition, imperatives for banking institutions are focusing on the provision of better quality services, meeting the needs of clients and adjusting to their specific demands, as these are the conditions for achieving satisfaction. Satisfaction has a consequent effect on the realisation of communication, but also economic business goals of market players. In accordance with these facts, the significance of measuring the quality of services needs to be pointed out. In recent years, the tendency of increase in the number of bank clients who use electronic banking services has been perceived in the Republic of Serbia. Advantages of this modern service are numerous, and the ones that stand out among them are saving time, more favourable price, comfortable and fast transaction execution. The purpose of this paper is to examine the satisfaction of clients in relation to electronic banking services, i.e. to come to a conclusion which elements of service quality have an impact on satisfaction, as well as to assess the intensity of such impact. In order to obtain the necessary information, we have used the measures of descriptive statistical analysis, reliability analysis, correlation and regression analysis. The data have been collected using the survey method and the questionnaire distributed to respondents for the purpose of specific research has been created on the basis of previous research in the quality of service field. The results have shown that three dimensions of modified SERVQUAL model (security, ease of use and responsibility) have a statistically significant impact on satisfaction, while other factors (reliability, empathy and website content) have, in their joint effect, indicated a non-significant impact on satisfaction. The contribution of this paper is reflected in the fact that the identification of factors (reliability, empathy, website content) that have not achieved a significant impact in their joint effect on the satisfaction of clients with electronic banking can be a signal for the management of financial institutions to take action in order to reduce the perceived risk, maintain trust, provide training and development of employees, modernize website appearance.

Open access