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Open access

Zdzisław Michalczyk, Stanisław Chmiel and Marek Turczyński

Lake water stage dynamics in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District in 1991-2010

In the years 1991-2010 the water stages of 38 lakes in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District were observed. Water stage dynamics of the Łęczna-Włodawa lakes was varied. A multi-annual trend with seasonal water stage variability was clearly observable. Low water stages were observed in the years 1994-1996 and 2004-2005, whereas the highest water stages were reported for 2002 and 2010. The water stages of Lake Piaseczno, the deepest lake, were consistent with solar activity changes. Land improvement works in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District and black coal mining caused further local changes in the directions of flow of surface and underground water, as well as modifying the water stage regime of some of the lakes.

Open access

M. Szczubiał, M. Kankofer, R. Dąbrowski, M. Bochniarz and R. Urban-Chmiel


The aim of the study was to investigate oxidative stress during normal pregnancy in female dogs based on an evaluation of plasma markers for lipid and protein peroxidation. Twenty clinically healthy female dogs (10 non-pregnant and 10 pregnant) were used in the study. Blood samples from the pregnant animals were collected at 19-21, 38-40, and 56-58 days of pregnancy. Blood samples from non-pregnant female dogs were obtained between 20 and 35 days after ineffective breeding. As indicators of oxidative stress, we measured the following using spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric methods: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), radical cations of N, N, diethylpara-phenylene diamine (RC-DEPPD), sulfhydryl groups (SH groups), bityrosine and formylkynurenine. The mean plasma TBARS concentration in the pregnant dogs (0.486 ± 0.071 – 0.581 ± 0.191 μmol/g protein) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than that found in the non-pregnant animals (0.274 ± 0.111 μmol/g protein). A marked, although not significant, decrease in SH group content, as well as an increase in bityrosine and formylkynurenine concentration were concurrently observed in the pregnant dogs. No significant differences were found in terms of the studied markers in the pregnant animals when comparing the values obtained during the investigated periods of pregnancy, although there was a progressive decrease in TBARS concentration and a progressive increase in RC-DEPPD, bityrosine and formylkynurenine contents. Our findings suggest that normal pregnancy in female dogs is associated with oxidative stress. Further studies are necessary to establish the physiological ranges of antioxidative/oxidative profiles in pregnant dogs and to explain if and how the intensity of oxidative stress might contribute to the risk of the complications of pregnancy.