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Open access

Zdzisław Michalczyk, Stanisław Chmiel and Marek Turczyński

Lake water stage dynamics in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District in 1991-2010

In the years 1991-2010 the water stages of 38 lakes in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District were observed. Water stage dynamics of the Łęczna-Włodawa lakes was varied. A multi-annual trend with seasonal water stage variability was clearly observable. Low water stages were observed in the years 1994-1996 and 2004-2005, whereas the highest water stages were reported for 2002 and 2010. The water stages of Lake Piaseczno, the deepest lake, were consistent with solar activity changes. Land improvement works in the Łęczna-Włodawa Lake District and black coal mining caused further local changes in the directions of flow of surface and underground water, as well as modifying the water stage regime of some of the lakes.

Open access

Anna Wolak-Tuzimek, Joanna Tarnawska and Marek Chmiel

Abstract

Areas of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) have been defined in ISO 26000. Guidelines of the International Standardisation Organisation distinguish seven areas: corporate governance, human rights, labour practices, natural environment, fair operating practices, consumer issues, social commitment and development of local communities. This article presents good practices implemented by enterprises in the individual areas, in particular, actions in the area of the natural environment. Two research hypotheses are posited concerning the rate of implementing good CSR practices and the number of actions in the natural environment area. National Responsible Business Forum research and a survey of a group of enterprises in the Mazovian region, conducted by the authors in 2014–2016, served to verify the hypotheses. The results imply that the number of good practices realised in CSR areas tends to grow. In addition, actions in the area of the natural environment rank third with regard to good practices implemented.

Open access

Marek Chmiel, Mariusz Kastek, Dariusz Całus and Krystian Szczepański

Abstract

The range of applications in which remote detection of chemical compounds is used extends from monitoring of technological processes through diagnostics of industrial installation and environmental control up to military applications. The methods and the devices used for the passive detection of selected gases are presented. The change in the signal reaching the camera caused by the presence of gas was calculated. The successful detection can be achieved if the absorption (or emission) of a gas cloud, located between object (background) and the camera, causes signal change greater or equal to noise equivalent temperature difference (NETD) of the camera.