Refeeding Syndrome (RFS) is a potential life-threatening complication of the nutritional therapy in the replenishment phase after period of starvation. This not very known syndrome may be a life-threatening metabolic condition due to rapid, inadequate nutritional support in malnourished catabolic patients. The intake of food and therefore the switch from a catabolic to an anabolic metabolism is most considered etiological mechanism. The main biochemical feature of RFS is hypophosphatemia and low levels of potassium and magnesium. Lack of vitamins, especially vitamin B1 or thiamine is often present and involves severe clinical complications.
The erector spinae plane block is a novel ultrasound-guided technique that has recently been described for the management of acute and chronic thoracic pain. Currently an increasingly number of indications for the ESP block have been published. Nevertheless, the anatomy, mechanism of action, doses and volume of local anesthetic needed are still unclear. The aim of this narrative review is study this new block with base on the updated medical literature.