Anisakidosis is a zoonotic infection caused by ingestion of raw or undercooked marine fish including Atherina. In some parts of Egypt, the prevalence of anisakid larvae in marine Atherina still, largely, undetermined. Moreover, the currently used procedures are insufficient to avoid human infection. The aim of this study was to identify the prevalence of anisakid larvae in marine Atherina and to test the effect of several treatment procedures on the viability of anisakid larvae. The infection rate of marine Atherina with anisakid larvae was 23.12 %. Anisakid larvae protein revealed molecular weights ranged from 11.5 - 118.5 Kilo Dalton (KDa.). Moreover, freezing at -20 °C for 21 hours (hrs.) as well as vinegar (5 %) treatment for 3 days were the most effective ways to inactivate the larvae. This study states the zoonotic risk of consuming raw or undercooked marine Atherina and highlights the importance of freezing and vinegar treatment in preventing human infection.
The effects of two dietary supplemental energy sources on metabolic attributes, milk production and ovarian activity of ewes during early to mid-postpartum period were studied using thirty multiparous lactating ewes (Rahmani × Barki) weighing 43.10±1.22 kg and 3-6 years old. The ewes were assigned to three groups (n=10 per group). All ewes received the same diet supplemented with isocaloric and isonitrogenous protected-palm oil (50 g/ewe/d, F-group) or a sugar cane molasses (140 g/ewe/d, M-group) or without supplementation (control, C-group), for 60 days starting 2 weeks postpartum. Results showed that, during the experimental period, both energy sources reduced (P<0.05) body weight loss of ewes compared with the control (2.57 kg in F-group, 0.911 kg in M-group and 4.71 kg in C-group). The metabolic profiles of ewes were affected by the sources of energy, the highest (P<0.05) concentration of serum triglycerides was in the F-group, whereas the highest (P<0.05) concentration of serum insulin was in the M-group. The lowest serum glucose concentration was (P<0.05) in the F-group (73.20 mg/dL) and the highest in the C-group (76.85 mg/dL), whereas it was intermediate in the M-group (74.69 mg/dL). Ewes in the F-group had (P<0.05) the highest milk yield and energy-corrected milk (531.72 g/d and 554.40 g/d, respectively) compared with those in the M-group (491.76 g/d and 525.12 g/d, respectively) and C-group (429.96 g/d and 462.00 g/d, respectively). The highest (P<0.05) number of corpora lutea (CL; ovulation activity) was in the F-group (0.45), whereas it was not different between the M-group (0.25) and the C-group (0.15). In conclusion, during early to mid-postpartum period, protected-fat supplementation increased serum triglycerides concentration which was effectively used as an energyyielding nutrient for improving milk production. It could also be suggested that specific fatty acid in protected-fat improved quality of the ovulatory follicle and thus occurrence of ovulation.