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  • Author: M. S. Khan x
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Open access

N. A. Khan, A. Shaikh, M. A. Zahoor Raja and S. Khan

Abstract

In this article, Legendre simulated annealing, neural network (LSANN) is designed for fuzzy fractional order differential equations, which is employed on fractional fuzzy initial value problem (FFIVP) with triangular condition. Here, Legendre polynomials are used to modify the structure of neural networks with a Taylor series approximation of the tangent hyperbolic as activation function while the network adaptive coefficients are trained in the procedure of simulated annealing to optimize the residual error. The computational results are depicted in terms of numerical values to compare them with previous results.

Open access

S. U. Rehman, A. Q. Baig, M. Imran and Z. U. Khan

Abstract

The interplay between groups and graphs have been the most famous and productive area of algebraic graph theory. In this paper, we introduce and study the graphs whose vertex set is group G such that two distinct vertices a and b having di erent orders are adjacent provided that o(a) divides o(b) or o(b) divides o(a).