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Open access

M. Sarfraz, S.A. Khan, A. Moosa, A. Farzand, U. Ishaq, I. Naeem and W.A. Khan

Abstract

In vitro antifungal potential of Trichoderma isolates, selective botanical extracts and fungicides against A. solani was evaluated. Trichoderma isolates, i.e. T. harzianum, T. viride and T. hamatum, were tested for their antifungal effect by dual culture technique at 48, 96, 144 and 172 hrs. T. hamatum produced the highest inhibition of A. solani in vitro, followed by T. hazianum and T. viride after 172 hrs. Methanolic leaf extracts of Elettaria cardamomum, Syzygium aromaticum, Curcuma longa and root extract of Parthenium hysterophorus showed up to 100% inhibition of A. solani, compared to control, while methanolic stem and leaf extracts of P. hysterophorus produced up to 90% inhibition of the pathogen. In vitro, six different systemic fungicides Triger 25% EC (Tebuconazole), Solex (Carbendazim 40% + Triadimefon 10%), Dew (Difenoconazole), Amistor Top SC (Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole), Corel 25% EC (Difenoconazole), Reflex (Difenoconazole + Propiconazole) were tested against A. solani at 5, 10 and 15 ppm concentrations after 48, 96, 144 and 172 hrs. Corel and reflex at all concentrations produced best growth inhibition of A. solani. The inhibition was maximum by all fungicides at 15 ppm after 172 hrs. All fungicides had a promising inhibitory effect on A. solani, except Solex. It can be concluded from the present investigation that a combination of these strategies can be used in integrated disease management of A. solani on potato.

Open access

S. Iqbal, H.Z. Khan, Ehsanullah, N. Akbar, M.S.I. Zamir and H.M.R. Javeed

Abstract

A field experiment was conducted to study the effect of different nitrogen management methods on yield, yield components and quality attributes of maize hybrids (single cross-6142 and double cross-4444) under irrigated conditions. Nitrogen dose is met either by PM (poultry manure) or urea according to each treatment. PM was incorporated at the time of presowing irrigation whereas fertigation method at knee height stage and foliar spray at flowering were use for the application of urea. Results showed that plant height, cob diameter, number of grains per cob, grain yield and biological yield were significantly affected by the hybrids. Significantly, higher plant height, cob diameter, number of grains per cob, grain yield and biological yield were produced by single cross-6142. There was no significant difference occur between both hybrids on seed oil and protein contents. N management by the application of T3 (60% N from PM + 38.5% N from urea through fertigation + 1.5% N from urea through foliar application) produced significantly more plant height, cob diameter, number of grains per cob, grain yield, biological yield, seed protein and seed oil contents. The interaction of single cross-6142 and T3 (60% N from PM + 38.5% N from urea through fertigation + 1.5% N from urea through foliar application) was found superior in production of more plant height, cob diameter and number of grains per cob. However, interaction between maize hybrids and N application methods for grain yield, biological yield, seed protein and oil contents was reported nonsignificant. It can be concluded that single cross hybrid-6142) and T3 (60% N from PM, 38.5% N from urea through fertigation and 1.5% N from urea through foliar application) could be used successfully for improving maize yield under the irrigated conditions.

Open access

O. Naseer, J.A. Khan, M.S. Khan, M.O. Omer, G.A. Chishti, M.L. Sohail and M.U. Saleem

Abstract

Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus spp. which are injurious to animals and humans The aim of this study was to determine the effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on Average Daily Feed Intake (ADFI), Average Daily Weight Gain (ADWG), haematological and serum biochemical responses of Bovine Calves and to determine the comparative efficacy of two different liver tonics against AFB1. Twenty seven calves were selected from herd and divided into 3 groups. All calves were fed with 1.0 mg/kg AFB1 for a period of 10 days. After that they were fed with liver tonics: Silymarin fed at a rate of 600 mg/kg and Choline chloride 500 mg/kg for 7 days. The results indicate that the ADFI and ADWG of AFB1 treated calves decreased significantly. Serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine significantly increased due to AFB1. In haematology the total erythrocyte count (TEC), total leukocyte count (TLC), haemoglobin concentration (HGB), haematocrit levels (HCT), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC), lymphocyte %, neutrophil % and monocyte % significantly decreased in AFB1 treated calves after 10 days of feeding. Both liver tonics significantly (p<0.05) improved all the parameters, including ADFI, ADWG, hematologial and serum biochemical test. However, Silymarin comparatively more efficiently ameliorate the effects induced by AFB1 than choline chloride.

Open access

J. Reddy, A. Singh, S. Joshi, M. Khan and J. Saxena

Abstract

DNA topoisomerases are ubiquitous enzymes which are involved in replication, transcription, recombination and repair of nucleic acids. DNA topoisomerase II of filarial parasite Setaria cervi was purified to homogeneity by use of cation exchange and affinity chromatography. The purified enzyme migrated on SDS-PAGE as a single band with molecular weight of ∼80 kDa and native molecular weight of the enzyme was found to be 175 kDa indicating the dimeric nature of the protein. Topo II of S. cervi required ATP and dATP for its activity and optimal activity was observed at 1.0 mM ATP concentration. The filarial enzyme also utilized nucleotides, namely GTP, UTP and CTP for its activity. The divalent metal ions requirement of the enzyme showed that beside Mg+2 other ions viz., Ca+2, Mn+2, Cu+2 and Sr+2 were also utilized as cofactor for the activity. Antifilarial compounds ivermectin and diethylcarbamazine inhibited 100 % topo II activity at 100 μM concentration but suramin showed similar effect at 20 μM concentration. Nalidixic acid and novobiocin exhibited 100 % inhibition of the enzyme activity while mAMSA and etoposide inhibited the activity to different extents at 100 μM concentration. In view of significant differences in properties exhibited by the filarial topoisomerase as compared to other parasitic and eukaryotic topoisomerases, the filarial topoisomerase can be usefully exploited to devise new antifilarial compounds.

Open access

A.M. Khan, S. Fiaz, I. Bashir, S. Ali, M. Afzal, K. Kettener, N. Mahmood and M. Manzoor

Abstract

Nine cotton genotypes, comprised of four non Bt males (CIM-1100, CIM-506, FH-942 and FH-900), five Bt female genotypes (FH-113, FH-114, MNH- 886, AA-703 and IR-3701) and their 20 crosses were screened in order to evaluate their response to Cotton leaf curl virus symptoms through epidemiology in the field and greenhouse. The 20 crosses among their nine parents were sown in two replications under randomized complete block design, during 2013 and 2014. The mean squares were significant for all traits indicating that both additive and non-additive genes control the characters, but non-additive genes were more important because, variance of dominant genes were higher than additive genes. In our test, FH-900 showed the best performance against CLCuV, number of lobes per boll and seed yield. The CIM- 1100 genotype performed well in boll weight, fiber strength and fiber fineness, whereas CIM-506 was good for plant height, number of sympodial branches and ginning. Maximum boll number, seed index and fiber length were shown by FH-942. Among lines, MNH886, FH-113, IR-3701 and FH-114 exhibited the best general combination for many traits. Hence, parents were preferred for hybridization program to improve the majority of characters. Hybrids FH-113 × FH-942, MNH-886 × CIM-1100, MNH-886 × FH-942, IR-3701 × CIM-506, AA-703 × CIM-1100, FH-114 × FH-942, FH-114 × CIM-1100 and MNH-886 × FH- 900 was best in specific combinations for different traits, especially against CLCuV. The results indicated that to increase resistance against CLCuV, hybrids should be exploited to develop CLCuV resistance.

Open access

A. Ahmad, Z.I. Ahmed, M. Shehzad, I. Aziz, K.S. Khan, M. Shoaib, T. Mehmood and K. Mubeen

Abstract

Water scarcity and land degradation are emerging threats to global food production. The dry land regions of world are affected by climate change to a greater extent and facing food insecurity. The current pattern of food production has been estimated to be inadequate to meet demands of growing population and required around 38% increase to meet world`s food demands by 2025. Food insecurity in erosion hit dry land regions of Pakistan also demands development of resource-efficient cropping systems to meet the food needs of population growing. The research studies involved different cropping patterns such as fallow-wheat, mungbean-wheat, sorghum-wheat, fallow-lentil, mungbean-lentil, sorghum-lentil, fallow-barley, mungbean-barley and sorghum-barley. The organic amendments involved farmyard manure, NPK, poultry manure, compost and inoculation by phosphorus solubilizing microbes. The effect of cropping systems and soil amendments were evaluated at field scale in terms of water use efficiency measured in terms of economic terms. The results of the studies revealed that double cropping (mungbean-lentil and mungbean-barley) was feasible option in the dryland regions of Pakistan if integrated with the use of poultry manure as alternate environmental-friendly strategy to cut down the use of mineral fertilizers and eliminate summer fallowing.