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  • Author: M. Gulubova x
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The current review reveals the seven subclasses of CD4+ T helper cells, i.e. Th1, Th2, Th9, Th17, Th22, regulatory T cells and Tfh, the cytokines produced by them and their role in tumor microenvironment. Main attention was paid to IL-17 and Th17 cells. IL-17-producing cells were described, among which were Treg17 cells and Tc17 cells. The transcription factors, engaged in the activation of Th17 cell differentiation were reviewed. It was shown that Th17 cells might possess regulatory functions in tumor microenvironments that directs toward immunosuppression. The reciprocity between Treg and Th17 cells is realized when the production of a large amount of TGF-β in tumors causes Treg cell differentiation, and the addition of IL-6 shifts the differentiation of naïve T cells to Th17 cells. The main pro-tumor role of IL-17 is the promotion of tumor angiogenesis through stimulation of fibroblasts and endothelial cells. The antitumor functions of IL-17 are associated with enhancement of cytotoxic activity of tumor specific CTL cells and with angiogenesis that provide channels through which immune cells might invade tumor and promote antitumor immunity.


Today, the extraocular variant of sebaceous carcinoma is still being poorly recognized. This type of carcinoma is rarely diagnosed correctly, which, together with its aggressive behavior, contributes to its poor prognosis. We present a case of an 84-year-old man with a history of left nasal ala tumor formation, diagnosed morphologically and immunohistochemically as sebaceous carcinoma.


Gastric cancer (GC) is suitable for immunotherapy because 80% of it display microsatellite and chromosomal instability, some mutations and DNA hypermethylation. Therefore, GC is more immunogenic. The immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, adoptive cell therapy and checkpoint inhibition are discussed. The commonly used monoclonal antibodies are Trastuzumab targeting HER2 and Bevacizumab suppressing VEGF and tumor angiogenesis. Treatment with tumor-specific T cells is called adoptive cell therapy. There is experience with the application of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs), cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) and cytokine-induced killer cells (CIK). This review discusses the therapy with innate immune cells with anti-tumor activity such as dendritic cells and NK cells. The checkpoint inhibition was also reviewed. In conclusion, it could be stated that the immunotherapy of GC has the potential to provide a more favorable outcome to patients with GC, but it also have some limitations which need to be considered.


Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by decreased air flow and is associated with abnormal chronic inflammation in the airways and extensive tissue remodeling. Matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP7) is produced primarily by the epithelium of many organs, including the lungs. A functional MMP7 –181A>G (rs11568818) promoter polymorphism influences the binding of nuclear regulatory proteins modulating the transcription of the gene. In this study, we genotyped 191 patients with COPD for MMP7 –181A>G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) and 215 control subjects using the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method and explored the role of that polymorphism as a risk factor for COPD. There were no differences in the genotype and allele distribution of the MMP7 –181A>G SNP between the COPD patients and control groups (p = 0.341 and p = 0.214). However, the carries of the G allele (AG and GG genotypes), appeared to develop COPD significantly earlier than those with the AA genotype (61.01 ± 10.11 vs. 64.87 ± 9.00 years, p = 0.032). When the genotype distribution was studied only in the groups of patients (n = 76) and controls (n = 106) younger than 60 years, we found significantly higher frequency of the carriers of the G allele in COPD patients than in the controls, determining about a 3-fold higher risk for COPD [odds ratio (OR) –3.33, 1.36-8.14, p = 0.008 for GG, and OR = 2.91, 1.38-6.13, p = 0.005 for AG+GG]. Based on our results, the MMP7 –181A>G promoter variant may influence early development of COPD. This effect could be attributed to the increased production of the enzyme resulting in enhanced airway wall protein degradation and injury.