This study was conducted in the country of Zambia, Southern Africa, to investigate the occurrence of endo-parasites in indigenous Zambian dogs. Faecal samples were collected from 41 indigenous Zambian dogs from different areas of the Mbabala region in the Southern province of Zambia during the “hot wet” season, although at the time that the samples were collected, the country was experiencing a drought. Faecal samples were analysed using the concentration flotation method with zinc sulphate for the determination of the presence of gastrointestinal parasites. The most prevalent parasites were species from the family Ancylostomatidae (65.0 % infection rate) which followed by: Isospora canis (9.8 %), Dipylidium caninum (4.8 %), and Toxascaris leonina (2.4 %). There were in addition, two cases of co-infections with the family Ancylostomatidae and D. caninum, as well as the family Ancylostomatidae and I. canis.
Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis are protozoan infections of the digestive tract and one of the most frequent causes of enteritis in dogs and cats, associated with acute and chronic diarrhoea. Generally, the risk of infection is higher for younger individuals in which the overall clinical picture and the course of disease are more serious. In this study we investigated the prevalence of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis in dogs in Košice district of eastern Slovakia. From September 2015 until November 2016, we examined samples of faeces from 100 dogs from two shelters. Giardia duodenalis was diagnosed by the flotation method according to Faust, and by the molecular biologic method (Nested PCR). For the diagnosis of cryptosporidium oocysts, we used a staining method according to Kinyoun, and for detection of the presence of Cryptosporidium spp. a sandwich ELISA method. The total prevalence of these protozoan infections were 22 % (22/100), and of that, 19 % of the samples (19/100) were positive for Giardia duodenalis and 3 % (3/100) for the Cryptosporidium spp. In the shelter in Haniska, the giardia cysts were present in 9/54 samples (16.6 %) and cryptosporidia oocysts in 1/54 (1.85 %) samples of the faeces. In the Malá Farma shelter, 10/46 (21.73 %) samples were positive for G. duodenalis and 2/46 (4.34 %) showed positivity for Cryptosporidium spp.
During the years 2015—2016 we obtained 15 samples of faeces of brown bears (Ursus arctos) and 2 samples of gastrointestinal (GI) tracts of young female brown bears for helminthological examinations. The samples of faeces were collected from various sites in the protected landscape area CHKO-Poľana, and the gastrointestinal tracts originated from bears hunted down in the same area within permitted regulation of bear population for 2015. Of the 17 samples collected from the CHKO-Poľana area, 13 were positive for the presence of parasites (76.47 %). Parasitological examinations revealed the presence of 5 species of endoparasites: Eimeria, Cryptosporidium, Sarcocystis, Baylisascaris and Ancylostoma. Roundworms Baylisascaris transfuga (46.15 %) and Ancylostoma spp. (30.77 %) were the dominant species. Observation of the seasonal dynamics showed the highest prevalence of parasites during autumn and winter.
Giardiasis is one of the most frequent causes of diarrhoeic diseases in the world. Giardia cysts are most commonly transferred via ingestion of contaminated water or food. On the basis of genetic characteristics Giardia duodenalis is classified in eight assemblages A—H. Zoonotic assemblages A and B are increasingly found in isolates from dogs which may constitute the reservoir of human giardiasis. This article presents a brief review of G. duodenalis assemblages detected in dogs that were documented in European countries.