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Open access

Mudan Lu, Jianbo Zhou, Fei Xu, Yongxiang Yin and Daozhen Chen


Background: Cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27Kip1 is a new class of tumor suppressor in a dosage dependent manner to control cell cycle progression. Human epididymis protein 4 (HE4) is a potentially useful biomarker for ovarian carcinoma, comparable with cancer antigen 125 in identifying women with ovarian cancer, both localized and advanced. However, the prognostic significance of p27Kip1 and HE4 in ovarian cancer is unclear.

Objective: Investigate the expression of p27Kip1 and HE4 in the progression of human ovarian cancer.

Material and method: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin sections of 61 specimens. The association between HE4 and p27Kip1expression and clinicopathological features was analyzed using χ2-test. For analysis of survival data, Kaplan-Meier curves were constructed, and the log-rank test was performed.

Results: The expression of p27Kip1 negatively related with HE4 expression, but it correlated significantly with lymph nodes. On the other hand, HE4 expression correlated significantly with disease stage and lymph nodes. Kaplan-Meier analysis of the survival curves of p27Kip1 and HE4 revealed a highly significant separation between low vs. high expressers in ovarian carcinoma.

Conclusion: Expression of HE4 was up-regulated significantly in human ovarian carcinoma. Overexpression of HE4 might be responsible for oncogenesis and development of ovarian carcinoma. HE4 and p27Kip1 may be of prognostic significance in human ovarian cancer.

Open access

Mudan Lu, Fei Xu, Yong Wang, Yongxiang Yin, Jingying Xiang and Daozhen Chen


Background: Ovarian carcinoma represents one of the most insidious and aggressive cancers. Ovarian carcinoma is the most lethal gynecological malignancy. To discover new relevant biomarkers to increase specificity and sensitivity for early diagnosis and prognosis of ovarian cancer is important and urgently needed. FOXO3a possesses a large series function including cellular proliferation, transformation, differentiation, and longevity. Jab1 is also known as subunit 5 (CSN5) of the COP9 signalosome (CSN), a multifunctional protein complex involved in modulating signal transduction, gene transcription, and protein stability.

Objective: To investigate the importance of FOXO3a and Jab1 in ovarian cancer.

Method: Immunohistochemical analysis was performed on formalin-fixed paraffin sections of 46 specimens. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Stat View 5.0 software package.

Result: We found that Foxo3a expression correlates significantly with FIGO disease stage (p < 0.05) and lymph node involvement. Jab1 expression correlates significantly with disease stage and lymph node involvement (p < 0.05). A multivariate Cox proportional hazard model showed that Foxo3a and Jab1 were the strongest independent predictors of survival (p < 0.05), the second predictor being FIGO disease stage and lymph node involvement.

Conclusion: Understanding the precise role of Jab1 and Foxo3a in ovarian cancer progression will not only increase our knowledge of the biology of ovarian cancer but may also enable development of an novel therapeutic strategy via suppression of Jab1.

Open access

Yin-Guang Cao, Zhi-Hui Li, Ai-Xia Sun, Gui-Qing Yang, Le-Xin Wang and Xin-Xin Lu


Background: CA16 and enterovirus 71 are two key etiological agents for children’s hand-foot-mouth disease (HFMD). Large-scale HFMD outbreaks have taken place every year in Liaocheng City, Shandong Province of China since 2008.

Objective: We investigated the genetic background and phyletic evolution of coxsackie virus A16 (CA16)-related severe HFMD in children from Liaocheng City.

Method: CA16 was screened from throat swab and anus specimens obtained from children with severe HFMD between 2008 and 2010. Specific primers were used to amplify the VP1 region of CA 16 for sequence analysis.

Result: A total of 461 specimens were detected to be enterovirus positive from 2008 to 2010 and 401 specimens were CA16 positive. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of 16 isolates from children with severe HFMD were compared with the reference sequences, and the nucleotide homology was 91.43%-98.65%, and the amino acid homology was 97.98%-100%. Of the16 isolates, 9 isolates and BJ03-ZDP (AY821798), Shzh00-1 (AY790926), Shzh05-1 (EU262658), and GZ08 (FJ198212) strains isolated from Chinese mainland were located on the same branch; the remaining 7 isolates, the strains isolated from Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam, Australia and other neighboring countries. AF177911 from Taiwan andshzh01-69 strain (AY895111) from Shenzhen were located on another branch.

Conclusion: CA16 is one of the major pathogens of HFMD and the homology of strains is high.