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Open access

Guanying Wang, Xinran Li, Renli Jiang, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Yu Zheng and Li Gao

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to define transient changes in the concentration of inflammatory biomarkers and cartilage biomarkers in the synovial fluid of joints following experimentally induced acute equine synovitis. Acute synovitis was induced in eight skeletally mature mares by a sterile intra-articular injection of 1 mL of phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) containing 0.5 ng of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The solution was injected into the right middle carpal joint. One mL of sterile PBS was injected into the left control joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at the baseline level and at 8, 24, and 168 h after injection. The levels of inflammatory biomarkers-prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and cartilage turnover biomarkers-collagenase-cleavage neoepitope of type II collagen (C2C) and C-terminal crosslinked telopeptide type II collagen (CTX-II) were detected with proper assays. Single injections of LPS raised the number of synovial white blood cells and concentrations of total protein, PGE2, IL-1β, TNF-α, C2C, and CTX-II. PGE2 and IL-1β rose sharply at 8 h, while TNF-α increased steadily through 8 h and 24 h, at that point; these three factors returned to the baseline level by 168 h. The time course of C2C and CTX-II concentrations peaked sharply at 24 h, and continued to be significantly elevated over the baseline level even at 168 h. Injections of LPS into the joints led to a temporal inflammatory response, which in turn increased local release of inflammatory biomarkers and significantly altered the concentrations of cartilage markers in the synovial fluid.

Open access

Qin Zhou, Yu-feng Gao, Xiao-miao Zhao, Fa-ming Pan and Xu Li

Abstract

Objective To investigate the relationship between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-4 (IL-4) gene and outcome of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a Chinese Han population.

Methods Total of 501 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and 301 controls with selflimiting HBV infection were studied. Three tag SNPs in the IL-4 gene (rs2227284G/T, rs2243283C/G and rs2243288A/G) were genotyped by the Multiplex snapshot technique. The genotype and allele frequencies were calculated and analyzed.

Results The three SNPs showed no significant genotype/allele associations with chronic HBV infection. Overall allele P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.655, odds ratio (OR) [95% confidence interval (CI)] = 1.070 (0.793-1.445); rs2243283, P = 0.849, OR (95% CI) = 0.976 (0.758-1.257); rs2243288, P = 0.659, OR (95% CI) = 1.060 (0.818-1.375). Overall genotype P values were: rs2227284, P = 0.771; rs2243283, P = 0.571; rs2243288, P = 0.902. There were no statistically significant differences between patients with chronic HBV infection and controls. Haplotypes generated by these three SNPs also had no significant differences between the two groups.

Conclusions The three tag SNPs of IL-4 were not associated with the outcome of HBV infection in the Han Chinese population.

Open access

Li-Wei Gao and Guo-Liang Wang

Abstract

Lung cancer (LC), which includes small-cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) and non-small-cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), is common and has a high fatality rate. This study aimed to reveal the prognostic mechanisms of LC. GSE30219 was extracted from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and included 293 LC samples and 14 normal lung samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified using the Limma package, and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis using DAVID. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) targeting the DEGs were predicted using Webgestalt. Cytoscape software was used to build a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and to identify significant network modules. Survival analysis was conducted using Survminer and Survival packages, and validation was performed using The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) dataset. The good and poor prognosis groups contained 518 DEGs. miR-190, miR-493, and miR-218 for the upregulated genes and miR-302, miR-200, and miR-26 for the downregulated genes were predicted. Three network modules (module 1, 2, and 3) were identified from the PPI network. CDK1, MCM10, and NDC80 were the core nodes of module 1, 2, and 3, respectively. In module 1, CDK1 interacted with both CCNB1 and CCNB2. Additionally, CDK1, CCNB1, CCNB2, MCM10, and NDC80 expression levels correlated with clinical survival and were identified as DEGs in both GSE30219 and the TCGA dataset. miR-190, miR-493, miR-218, miR-200, and miR-302 might act in LC by targeting the DEGs. CDK1, CCNB1, CCNB2, MCM10, and NDC80 might also influence the prognosis of LC.

Open access

Jun Cheng, Min Li, Ping Gao, Jin-ling Dong and Qi Wang

Abstract

Liver steatosis is a pathological hallmark in patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC). Increased lipid uptake, decreased lipid secretion, increased lipid synthesis and decreased lipid degradation are all involved in pathogenesis of steatosis induced by hepatitic C virus (HCV) infection. Level of low density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-R) and activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α is related to liver uptake of lipid from circulation, and affected by HCV. Secretion via microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTTP), and formation of very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) have been hampered by HCV infection. Up-regulation of lipid synthesis related genes, such as sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP)-1, SREBP-2, SREBP-1c, fatty acid synthase (FASN), HMG CoA reductase (HMGCR), liver X receptor (LXR), acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), hepatic CB (1) receptors, retinoid X receptor (RXR) α, were the main stay of liver steatosis pathogenesis. Degradation of lipid in liver is decreased in patients with CHC. There is strong evidence that heterogeneity of HCV core genes of different genotypes affect their effects of liver steatosis induction. A mechanism in which steatosis is involved in HCV life cycle is emerging.

Open access

Xinran Li, Renli Jiang, Guanying Wang, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Xu Liu, Jinglu Wang, Jialiang Pan and Li Gao

Abstract

The study was conducted on 24 Mongolian horses, with oligofructose-induced equine laminitis (10 g/kg b.w.). The objective of the study was to investigate the relationships among matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), P38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (P38 MAPK), tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 2 (TIMP-2), lipopolysaccharides (LPS), and tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) during acute developmental phase of laminitis, and to determine whether there are any characteristic tendencies. Moreover, plasma concentrations of LPS and TNF-α were measured in order to determine the time of leukocytes’ activation. Eleven of the 12 horses showed clinical signs of laminitis. The contents of MMP-2 and P38 MAPK increased significantly from 8 h to 64 h, and the content of TIMP-2 decreased significantly at the same time. Plasma LPS concentrations increased significantly between 8 h and 20 h and reached a peak of 0.024 ± 0.009 EU/mL (equivalent to 3.04 ± 1.19 pg/mL) at 12 h. TNF-α concentration increased between 20 h and 36 h. This data indicates that MMP-2 plays an important role during the early acute developmental phase of oligofructose-induced equine laminitis.

Open access

Renli Jiang, Li Gao, Guanying Wang, Xinran Li, Yue Li, Xiaojing Fan, Xu Liu, Jinglu Wang, Yu Zhang, Xiangxing Kong and Jianhua Xiao

Abstract

Horses (n = 20) were divided into 2 groups: oligofructose (OF)-induced equine laminitis group (group OF; n = 11) which received 10 g/kg b.w. of OF dissolved in 4 L water via nasogastric intubation, and control group (NS; n = 9) which received 4 L of saline. Blood was collected at 4 h intervals over 72 h study period and analysed by ELISA, kinetic limulus amoebocyte lysate assay, and glucose-oxidase methods. The level of insulin changed significantly in horses which received OF (P < 0.01); there was a significant negative correlation between the level of adiponectin and insulin over time. The results suggested that insulin may play an important role in the development of OF-induced equine laminitis by altering the level of endothelin-1 and nitric oxide.

Open access

Tian-wen Ma, Yue Li, Guan-ying Wang, Xin-ran Li, Ren-li Jiang, Xiao-peng Song, Zhi-heng Zhang, Hui Bai, Xin Li and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction: The study aimed to clarify the changes in the concentration of inflammatory mediators, proteases, and cartilage degradation biomarkers in the synovial fluid of joints in an equine osteoarthritis model.

Material and Methods: Osteoarthritis was induced in eight Mongolian horses by a sterile intra-articular injection of amphotericin B, which was injected into the left carpal joint in a dose of 2 mL (25 mg/mL). The control group comprised five horses which were injected with an equal dose of sterile physiological saline into the left carpal joint. Synovial fluid was obtained at baseline and every week after injection. Test methods were based on ELISA.

Results: In the course of the osteoarthritis, the concentration of biomarkers in joint synovial fluid showed an increasing trend. IL-1, IL-6, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, CS846, GAG, HA, CTX-II, and COMP concentrations sharply increased before the onset of significant symptoms of lameness, whereas TNF-α, MMP-2, and MMP-3 concentrations rose sharply after the occurrence of such symptoms.

Conclusion: The results obtained confirm that the concentrations of IL-1, IL-6, MMP-9, MMP-13, ADAMTS-5, CS846, GAG, HA, CTX-II and COMP increase substantially in equine osteoarthritis, which provides a theoretical basis for the rapid diagnosis of the disease.

Open access

Yi-Ming Zhang, Dong-Xu Yu, Bai-Shuang Yin, Xin-Ran Li, Li-Na Li, Ya-Nan Li, Yu-Xin Wang, Yu Chen, Wen-Han Liu and Li Gao

Abstract

Introduction: Xylazine, a type of α2-adrenoceptors, is a commonly used drug in veterinary medicine. Xylazine-induced changes in the content of amino acid neurotransmitters – glycine (Gly) and aspartic acid (Asp), in different brain regions and neurons were studied.

Material and Methods: Wistar rats were administered 50 mg/kg or 70 mg/kg of xylazine by intraperitoneal injection. In addition, in vitro experiments were conducted, in which neurons were treated with 15 μg/mL, 25 μg/mL, 35 μg/mL, and 45 μg/mL of xylazine. Test methods were based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA).

Results: During anaesthesia, Asp levels in each brain area were significantly lower compared to the control group. Except for the cerebrum, levels of Gly in other brain areas were significantly increased during the anaesthesia period. In vitro, xylazine-related neuron secretion of Gly increased significantly compared to the control group at 60 min and 90 min. Moreover, xylazine caused a significant decrease in the levels of Asp secreted by neurons at 20 min, but gradually returned to the level of the control group.

Conclusion: The data showed that during anaesthesia the overall levels of Asp decreased and overall levels of Gly increased. In addition, the inhibitory effect of xylazine on Asp and the promotion of Gly were dose-dependent. Our data showed that different effects of xylazine on excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters provided a theoretical basis for the mechanism of xylazine activity in clinical anaesthesia.

Open access

Yun-ru Li, Feng-xin Chen, Xue-fei Duan, Xue-song Gao and Xiao-ling Fan

Abstract

A 50-year-old man with ankylosing spondylitis was treated successfully with infliximab, who was also a HBV carrier for about twenty five years. After injection with infliximab for four times, he developed jaundice and HBV DNA was detectable in serum. Serum aminotransferase and total bilirubin levels were higher than normal. Then he was hospitalized and treated with entacavir and Chinese herb medicine. But his liver damage aggravated and was diagnosed as acute on chronic liver failure. Finally, liver transplantation was carried out and he was cured successfully.

Open access

Ping Li, Xi Xiong, Xin Zhang, Zhi-guo Yang, Lei Gao and Mao-rong Wang

Abstract

Objective to investigate the association between HBV genotypes and characteristics of rtA181 mutation.

Methods Total of 85 chronic hepatitis B (CHB) patients who appeared rtA181 mutation after nucleos(t)ide analogs (NAs) therapy were enrolled in this study. Levels of serum ALT, AST, HBV DNA and HBsAg titers were monitored during therapy. HBV reverse transcriptase genes were amplified and sequenced to identify genotypes and resistance mutations. Virions and HBsAg in HepG2 cell with rtA181 mutation were also compared between genotypes B and C.

Results The majority of sera contained HBV genotypes B (15.7%) and C (84.3%). There were no significant difference of rtA181 mutant patterns between genotypes (P > 0.05). After emergence of rtA181 mutation, serum ALT, AST, HBV DNA levels and HBsAg titers were decreased than that at baseline (P < 0.05), while these characteristics were not different between genotypes B and C (P > 0.05). In cellular experiment, there were no significant differences between genotypes B and C not only in HBV virions but also in HBsAg titres (P > 0.05).

Conclusions No differences of clinical characteristics and cellular results were found in rtA181 mutation of HBV genotypes B and C.