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Open access

Lesław Kulmatycki and Agnieszka Surynt


The objective of this paper was to present an original project titled “Sports 2014 – Multifactorial Environmental Model”, designed to reinforce positive behavior and create a sense of community among urban youth. It evolved together with the subsequent phases of an urban health promotion program that began in 1994 in Wrocław, Poland. However, the basis of this model was in creating a health promotion initiative that included elements of the Mandala model of health, an ecological model, and the ‘Your Neighborhood’s Coach’ health promotion and at-risk prevention program, begun in 2003 by the Sports Department of the City of Wrocław and continued to this day. This type of initiative was designed to include measures typical of a prevention program while also promoting an active lifestyle through constructive leisure activities. Its guiding philosophy was the ‘get involved’ rather than ‘dissuade from’ approach, which has found popularity in programs of a similar nature across the world. The presented “Multifactorial Environmental Model” is addressed to active counselors, coaches, psychologists, health promotion figureheads, and policymakers whose goal is to reduce negative and anti-social behavior in today’s youth. It should also find value among the pedagogical community of physical education institutions, as the presented work may serve as a source of experience when deciding on any significant changes in the education of future physical education teachers, coaches, and recreation instructors working with adolescents.

Open access

Lesław Kulmatycki, Torzyńska Katarzyna and Krystyna Boroń-Krupińska


Introduction: In Wroclaw experiment investigated whether and to what extent participation in a four-day short courses relaxation affects the experience of pain and whether there is a difference in the experience of pain in participants of trophotropic and ergotropic relaxation activities.

Material and methods: Participants according to preferences of strategy of how to cope with pain were assigned to the two groups. Ergotropic relaxation group was represented at trial by a "movement meditation" concern practice-oriented activity of the body and body work. Trophotropic relaxation group was represented at trial by "meditation seat" and focus more on the content of consciousness while maintaining the passivity of the body. The experiment was performed in the Psychology Unit (University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw) in the relaxation room. Fourteen people took part in this research (10 women and 4 men in the age between 35-55). During experiment all individuals were asked to complete a questionnaire CSQ (Coping Strategies Questionnaire) A.C. Rosenstiel'a and F.J. Keefe'go and VAS (Visual Analogue Scale) as a pain scale. VAS scale was used before (pre-test) and after (post-test) relaxation training.

Results: Both groups, ergotropic as well as trophotropic, reduced experience of pain. After relaxation session (post-test) according to VAS scale the mean score of the ergotropic relaxation group was 2,7 and for trophotropic group - 3,8. It was statistically significant difference between the two groups.

Conclusions: The experiment showed that the technique of dynamic relaxation was more effective in reducing pain. Perhaps the choice of relaxation techniques aimed at changing the perception of discomfort, we should take into account the ability of how to cope and reduce pain. Perhaps this is the most important factor when choosing a specific relaxation technique

Open access

Krzysztof Stec, Rajeev Choudhary and Lesław Kulmatycki

The Effects of Dynamic Surya Namaskar on Differential Chest Circumference of Physical Education Students

Purpose. The objective of the study was to determine the effects of dynamic Surya Namaskar (sun salutations) on the differential chest circumference of selected physical education students at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi. Basic procedures. The subjects for this study were selected from the Department of Physical Education at Banaras Hindu University. A total of 20 male subjects were selected and used as one practicing group. Dynamic Surya Namaskar was considered the independent variable and differential chest circumference was considered the dependent variable. The test was for differential chest circumference. The Repeated Measures Design was used for this study. Only one group of 20 participants was created. Tests were administered at regular intervals of two weeks. The tests started four weeks prior to the dynamic Surya Namaskar (DSN) treatment and took place every two weeks, three times. Thereafter, tests took place every two weeks during the treatment and after the completion of the treatment, they were continued for the following four-week period. Main findings. To determine the effect of dynamic Surya Namaskar on physiological and anthropometric variables of selected physical education students at Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, one way ANOVA was used at .05 level of significance. Conclusions. In relation to differential chest circumference, a significant (p < 0.05) effect of dynamic Surya Namaskar was found.

Open access

Rajeev Choudhary, Vineeta Singh, Krzysztof Stec, Lesław Kulmatycki and Tilak Raj Meena


Purpose. The objective of the study was to find out the trend of the effects of 4 varieties of bhastrika pranayama on static balance ability. Methods. The total of 75 male students were selected as subjects. The age of the subjects ranged 17-25 years. The participants were divided randomly into 5 groups, 15 students each. They practiced 4 varieties of bhastrika pranayama. Results. Quadratic components for overall trends were found significant in static balance ability. A significant difference was observed between linear components of the trends for the treatment groups and the control group in static balance ability. Also, a significant difference was noted between quadratic components of the trends for the treatment groups and the control group as for static balance ability. Conclusions. There was a significant difference among the adjusted post-test means of 4 experimental groups and the control group in static balance ability.

Open access

Renata Myrna-Bekas, Małgorzata Kałwa, Tadeusz Stefaniak and Lesław Kulmatycki

Mood Changes in Individuals Who Regularly Participate in Various Forms of Physical Activity

Purpose. A number of mental and physical benefits arise from leading an active lifestyle. Many forms of therapies make use of physical activity to reinforce rehabilitation as well as improve the condition of the body and mind. It is in this way that an individual can improve their well-being through cleansing the body of negative emotions and seek inner harmony, which is one of the most important features of mental health. However, the question arises whether all forms of physical activity improve the emotional state of an individual in the same way. A qualitative change in mood may be in fact related to the methodical factors present in physical activity (the type of exercise, the training method or its intensity and frequency) but also an instructor's personality, the age and gender of the participant as well as their physical fitness and motor skills, the subject's current social and mental state, environmental factors or other factors related to everyday life such as work, family, etc. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in mood of physically active and highly fit people, aged 22-25 years, after various forms of physical activity and with different training methodologies. Methods. The Mood Adjective Check List (UMACL) was administered to 84 students before and after completing a course in a number of physical activities. Statistical methods were then applied to the results to measure the size of the differences and for any statistical significance. Results. The results found that regardless of the form of physical activity or class duration, there was a positive change in the mood of participants. Differences in size of the changes, when compared to the forms of physical activity and gender, were not found. Conclusions. The improvement in mood of fit and regularly physically active adults is observed regardless what form of physical activity is practiced.