Home enteral nutrition (HEN for short) allows practically normal living for patients who cannot be fed orally but at the same time do not have to stay in hospitals, which is often found to decrease their mental condition, increase of probability of complications and costs of medical treatment.
The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of nutritional, mechanical and septic complications in patients fed enterally in home conditions.
Material and methods. The study performed using retrospective analysis of study results and reports from control visits for patients in the period between 2012-2013. 147 patients fed enterally using HEN method participated in the study, including 70 men and 77 women aged 19 to 99 years (average 65 years). The following type of gastrointestinal tract access was used for patients: PEG in 113 (76.5%), feeding jejunostomy - 21 (1.4%), PEG-PEJ - 5 (3.5%), in case of the remaining 8 patients the nasogastric gavage (5.5%) was used.
Results. The most common complication were infections (of gastric tract, skin soft tissue in the region of nutritional fistula entry, in three cases the aspiration pneumonia was diagnosed) found in 55 (49.1%) of cases. Mechanical complications were found out in 29 (25.9% of all complications), nutritional complications were present 28 times, which constituted 25% of all complications.
Conclusions. In the studied group of patients with an implemented HEN procedure, septic complications were the most common problem. The longest average nutrition time with PEG-PEJ probably results from the effective protection of the patient against aspiration pneumonia.