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Open access

Monika Kalita, Krystyna Majewska, Aleksandra Gradowska, Katarzyna Karwowska and Michał Ławiński


Home enteral nutrition (HEN for short) allows practically normal living for patients who cannot be fed orally but at the same time do not have to stay in hospitals, which is often found to decrease their mental condition, increase of probability of complications and costs of medical treatment.

The aim of the study was to analyze the frequency of nutritional, mechanical and septic complications in patients fed enterally in home conditions.

Material and methods. The study performed using retrospective analysis of study results and reports from control visits for patients in the period between 2012-2013. 147 patients fed enterally using HEN method participated in the study, including 70 men and 77 women aged 19 to 99 years (average 65 years). The following type of gastrointestinal tract access was used for patients: PEG in 113 (76.5%), feeding jejunostomy - 21 (1.4%), PEG-PEJ - 5 (3.5%), in case of the remaining 8 patients the nasogastric gavage (5.5%) was used.

Results. The most common complication were infections (of gastric tract, skin soft tissue in the region of nutritional fistula entry, in three cases the aspiration pneumonia was diagnosed) found in 55 (49.1%) of cases. Mechanical complications were found out in 29 (25.9% of all complications), nutritional complications were present 28 times, which constituted 25% of all complications.

Conclusions. In the studied group of patients with an implemented HEN procedure, septic complications were the most common problem. The longest average nutrition time with PEG-PEJ probably results from the effective protection of the patient against aspiration pneumonia.

Open access

Renata Błasiak, Michał Ławiński, Krystyna Majewska and Aleksandra Gradowska


According to the ESPEN and ASPEN guidelines, in the case of a long-term (>3-month) parenteral nutrition should be administered via a subcutaneous central venous catheter (CVC). There are three types of mechanical complications of tunnelled central catheter: catheter rupture, occlusion by TPN depositing and thrombofibrotic occlusion.

The aim of the study was to analyse the incidence of complications central catheter in a group of patients receiving HPN.

Material and methods. Between January 2010 and June 2014, HPN was conducted in 584 patients (306 women and 278 men), ninety-nine patients were enrolled in the study: 67 women and 32 men in whom mechanical complications of central catheters were found.

Results. Among 99 patients, 71 used the tunnelled Broviac catheter. Groshong catheters were placed only in patients receiving parenteral nutrition due to cancer. Analyses have shown differences between the older and younger in the number of mechanical complications. Younger patients were found to have a larger number of catheter complications (1.6 ± 1.1) in comparison with older patients (1.3 ± 0.7). The catheter that was most commonly damaged was the Broviac catheter 76.8%. The most frequent type of mechanical complications was catheter rupture 64.81%.

Conclusions. Mechanical complications of tunnelled central catheters in HPN patients can be repaired in an outpatient setting in half of the cases, which enables continuation of parenteral nutrition without the need to hospitalise the patient. The centres that conduct HPN should offer 24-hour care and help in case of problems with the central venous line to the patients.

Open access

Michał ławiński, Krystyna Majewska, Iwona Fołtyn and Aleksandra Gradowska


In patients with chronic gastrointestinal tract failure, requiring access to the venous system, the subsequent catheter re-insertion are leading to large veins thrombosis impeding or preventing the insertion of another catheter and exposing patients to the risk of complications. Understanding the pathophysiology of catheter-related infections, enabled to use methods allowing to eradicate the source of infection without removal and replacement of central catheter with a new one. In our center, for many years we have been using an alternative method involving implementation of the alcohol-antibiotic lock in the treatment of infections. This method is based on the assumption that the destruction of biofilm with concentrated alcohol will enable antibiotic penetration and killing other microorganisms. Treatment with alcohol-antibiotic lock lasts from 8 to 10 days and involves filling the catheter with 96% alcohol followed by a solution of the antibiotic of high concentration.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of treatment of catheter-related bloodstream infections with two methods (catheter replacement with a new one and the alcohol-antibiotic lock therapy) in patients receiving home parenteral nutrition (HPN).

Material and methods. 428 HPN in the period from 1 January 2005 to 31 December 2010. Among which 240 (56%) of women with an average age of 56.5±16 years and 188 (44%) of men with an average age of 54±17 years. The indications to HPN were as follows: short bowel syndrome in 298 (70%) patients, multilevel obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract in 52 (12%), postoperative gastrointestinal fistulas in 48 (11.2%), malabsorption syndrome in 17 (4%), motility disorders in 6, cachexia in 4 and radiation enteritis in 3 patients.

Results. In 247 (57.5%) from 428 patients, no episode of catheter-related bloodstream infection was found, while 181 were diagnosed with 352 episodes of catheter-related bloodstream infections. In 40 (9.4%) from 428 patients, 168 (47.8%) episodes have been found - almost a half. The mean duration of treatment of patients receiving home parenteral nutrition, starting from the first episode of catheterrelated bloodstream infection, in 48 patients treated with the lock was equal to 1053+748 days, and in 133 patients treated with catheter replacement was equal to 952+709 days (t-test p = 0.62).

Conclusions. The survival time of patients treated with alcohol-antibiotic lock is the same as in patients treated with the catheter removal and insertion of the new one. The use of alcohol-antibiotic lock to treat catheter-related bloodstream infections in order to eradicate selected microorganisms that colonize the lumen and cause an infection, is as effective as catheter replacement with a new one.

Open access

Michał Ławiński, Agnieszka Bzikowska, Mohammad Omidi, Krystyna Majewska and Urszula Zielińska-Borkowska


If planned improperly, parenteral nutrition may result in a number of severe metabolic complications caused by insufficient or excessive delivery of individual nutrients. One of the most common and the most dangerous complication is parenteral nutrition-associated liver disease (PNALD). Such a complication may also result from using RTU (ready-to-use) bags that are not adjusted adequately to individual patients.

The aim of the study was the analysis of prevalence and determining the cause of liver disease in patients who had been receiving parenteral nutrition in primary centres prior to the implementation of home parenteral nutrition in the specialist centre.

Material and methods. The study enrolled 146 patients who were referred to the Clinic in the period of 2006-2012 in order to be qualified for home parenteral nutrition. Interview and medical documentation revealed that 100 patients had been receiving parenteral nutrition by means of ready-to-use (RTU) bags in their primary centres. In the remaining 46 patients, such feeding had not been implemented. Upon admission, the following parameters were evaluated: bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), alanine aminotransferase (AlAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyltranspeptidase (GGTP), alkaline phosphatase (AP), triglycerides (TG), cholesterol, protein, albumins, amylase, urea, creatinine and C-reactive protein (CRP). The analysis of the results was conducted with the use of the Student’s T-test.

Results. The patients who had been receiving parenteral nutrition manifested significantly increased (p < 0.05) levels of total bilirubin, TG, AlAT, LDH, GGTP, AP and CRP. 23% of patients were diagnosed with jaundice, in 70%, GGTP > 100 i.u. and a half manifested biochemical features of cholestasis. No correlation was observed between the CRP level and results of liver function tests.

Conclusions. It was found that there is a correlation between parenteral nutrition with RTU bags and liver disease. The probable cause of liver disease associated with parenteral nutrition received prior to the transfer to the Clinic is excessive administration of lipids. It can be accompanied by excessive administration of glucose. Modification of parenteral nutrition helped to compensate for liver disorders in all patients