Importance of Animation Actions in the Operation of Hungarian Local Action Groups
The EU LEADER initiative has been running for 20 years and plays an important role in the development of European rural areas, however, in countries joining to the EU after 2004 it is still a relatively new phenomenon. In Hungary, for example, the LEADER+ programme was launched in 2005 with an experimental phase (called a "LEADER type initiative") and has developed to be a fully applied EU programme only in the current programming period. This paper explores the implementation of the LEADER programme in eastern Hungary. The examined Local Action Groups face diverse challenges concerning human, social, physical and financial capital, networks and social learning. The study investigates the opportunities and threats faced by the LAGs, with special regard to institutions, governance and applied initiatives. The roles of the LAGs within the social, economic and cultural context of given areas are examined through Lukesch's (2007) model FOG - forms of governance. The model is a tool to explore the interrelationships local partnership, local needs and local socio-cultural environment. The results of the FOG test show that the prevailing mode of governance in the examined LAGs emphasises animation actions as important elements of operation. Although the importance of animation actions is underlined by the result of the test, their presence between the initiatives is less than it should be. Good examples of animation actions are given: participatory video and a case study of its Hungarian application are introduced. Finally the role of Universities in animation actions is emphasised and closer relation of them with RD networks is called for.
Although the tendency that the population migrate from rural to urban areas is typical world wide, the globalised economy creates new circumstances and opportunities for rural areas as well. The ‘new rural economy’ therefore needs new infrastructure to support it. The authors of the paper have a common interest in how enterprise hubs could help the development of entrepreneurship in the 21st century from two different directions, from physical and from social aspects. Building on the experience gained along enterprise hubs in cities, the hypothesis behind the study is, that creating enterprise hubs from existing buildings in rural settlements could help the development of rural entrepreneurship. To examine the hypothesis two case studies following a period of two years (enterprise hub development in Debrecen and Noszvaj) were carried out. In line with other studies in this field, result shows that even well-designed physical spaces are not enough for change, and initiators, hosts or facilitators are needed, as they play an important role in focusing on the real interaction network and enabling more synergies to happen.
Burnout syndrome has an increasing incidence among intensive therapists because of high expectations and stress which leads to physical, mental and emotional exhaustion. Our aim was to examine the causes and severity of burnout in intensive care units.
Maslach Burnout Inventory questionnaires were distributed among intensive care workers of an university and a town hospital. Socio-demographic data were also collected.
The questionnaires were completed by 67 professionals, 28 doctors, 39 nurses. 43.4% suffered serious burnout, 23.52% high level of depersonalization, only 19.11% were satisfied with their accomplishments. Females showed higher incidence of burnout, especially those with chronic diseases (OR=3.33). According to our data, burnout was not related to family status and working hours, however there was significant correlation between satisfaction and weekly relaxation time (p = 0.0115).
Burnout syndrome is spreading among intensive care employees, therefore its prevention should be a priority.
Early recognition and intervention in sudden cardiac arrest is crucial for survival. The majority of these cases happen at the victims’ home or in public places, and the first person to act is usually a bystander. The purpose of this study was to assess and to compare bystander’s and third-year medical students’ (who attended first aid courses and training as first year students) knowledge about cardiopulmonary resuscitation in Tîrgu Mureş. Material and methods: We used a questionnaire, which included 28 questions and was filled in voluntarily by 335 people. We investigated previous cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) experience, willingness to help in an emergency situation and basic knowledge about CPR techniques. Results: Only 15% of bystanders were trained in CPR. The majority (94%) of them knew when they have to resuscitate a person and the correct position the person be in. The location of chest compressions was known by 39% of bystanders and by 78% of third-year medical students, the exact rate of chest compressions by 14% of bystanders and by 66% of medical students. 49% of bystanders had driving license, and even though first aid training was required at driving school, their knowledge was barely better than those who did not have one. Conclusions: Bystander’s knowledge on cardiopulmonary resuscitation is generally poor. To improve it, CPR training courses are needed in the community.