With the advance of indoor localization technology, indoor location-based services (ILBS) are gaining popularity. They, however, accompany privacy concerns. ILBS providers track the users’ mobility to learn more about their behavior, and then provide them with improved and personalized services. Our survey of 200 individuals highlighted their concerns about this tracking for potential leakage of their personal/private traits, but also showed their willingness to accept reduced tracking for improved service. In this paper, we propose PR-LBS (Privacy vs. Reward for Location-Based Service), a system that addresses these seemingly conflicting requirements by balancing the users’ privacy concerns and the benefits of sharing location information in indoor location tracking environments. PR-LBS relies on a novel location-privacy criterion to quantify the privacy risks pertaining to sharing indoor location information. It also employs a repeated play model to ensure that the received service is proportionate to the privacy risk. We implement and evaluate PR-LBS extensively with various real-world user mobility traces. Results show that PR-LBS has low overhead, protects the users’ privacy, and makes a good tradeoff between the quality of service for the users and the utility of shared location data for service providers.
The EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) is one of the most demanding and comprehensive privacy regulations of all time. A year after it went into effect, we study its impact on the landscape of privacy policies online. We conduct the first longitudinal, in-depth, and at-scale assessment of privacy policies before and after the GDPR. We gauge the complete consumption cycle of these policies, from the first user impressions until the compliance assessment. We create a diverse corpus of two sets of 6,278 unique English-language privacy policies from inside and outside the EU, covering their pre-GDPR and the post-GDPR versions. The results of our tests and analyses suggest that the GDPR has been a catalyst for a major overhaul of the privacy policies inside and outside the EU. This overhaul of the policies, manifesting in extensive textual changes, especially for the EU-based websites, comes at mixed benefits to the users.
While the privacy policies have become considerably longer, our user study with 470 participants on Amazon MTurk indicates a significant improvement in the visual representation of privacy policies from the users’ perspective for the EU websites. We further develop a new workflow for the automated assessment of requirements in privacy policies. Using this workflow, we show that privacy policies cover more data practices and are more consistent with seven compliance requirements post the GDPR. We also assess how transparent the organizations are with their privacy practices by performing specificity analysis. In this analysis, we find evidence for positive changes triggered by the GDPR, with the specificity level improving on average. Still, we find the landscape of privacy policies to be in a transitional phase; many policies still do not meet several key GDPR requirements or their improved coverage comes with reduced specificity.
Audio-based sensing enables fine-grained human activity detection, such as sensing hand gestures and contact-free estimation of the breathing rate. A passive adversary, equipped with microphones, can leverage the ongoing sensing to infer private information about individuals. Further, with multiple microphones, a beamforming-capable adversary can defeat the previously-proposed privacy protection obfuscation techniques. Such an adversary can isolate the obfuscation signal and cancel it, even when situated behind a wall. AudioSentry is the first to address the privacy problem in audio sensing by protecting the users against a multi-microphone adversary. It utilizes the commodity and audio-capable devices, already available in the user’s environment, to form a distributed obfuscator array. AudioSentry packs a novel technique to carefully generate obfuscation beams in different directions, preventing the multi-microphone adversary from canceling the obfuscation signal. AudioSentry follows by a dynamic channel estimation scheme to preserve authorized sensing under obfuscation. AudioSentry offers the advantages of being practical to deploy and effective against an adversary with a large number of microphones. Our extensive evaluations with commodity devices show that protects the user’s privacy against a 16-microphone adversary with only four commodity obfuscators, regardless of the adversary’s position. AudioSentry provides its privacy-preserving features with little overhead on the authorized sensor.