A progressive bacteria invasion on tooth tissues leads to pulp inflammation, microabscesses of the pulp, destruction and in consequence inflammation of periapical tissues. Therefore the aim of endodontic treatment is three dimensional debridement of a root canal from the vent in pulp chamber to the physiological narrowing. Therefore the aim of the study is analysis of root canal configuration, number of canals, presence of lateral canals and canal delta with the group of first permanent molars. At the same time the accuracy of the radiological examination (x-ray images) is estimated due to comprehension of X-ray images performed before teeth preparation with root canal system and after observation of transversal cuts by means of light microscopy and microtomography. This establishment is presented through the differences in conventional radiological image and clinical assessment.