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K. Gryc, M. Strouhalová, B. Smetana, L. Socha and K. Michalek

Thermo-physical and thermodynamic properties of metallic systems represent some of the most important data that allows to describe their behaviour under strictly specified conditions. These data are the basic, input data for simulative programs, which can model this behaviour and they can be applied to real conditions. Method of direct thermal analysis is the one of the methods of enabling to obtain such data. This paper deals with application of this method on particular sample of pure standard material. The experimental laboratory system for thermal analysis Netzsch STA 449 F3 Jupiter was used for experimental measurements. This paper is studying the influence of experimental conditions on the obtained temperature of phase transformations and on shift of phase transformation temperatures with respect to the monitored experimental conditions, accuracy and credibility of the measured data. Acquired values of this data could be significantly influenced by experimental conditions, size (mass) of samples, purity of inert atmosphere and also by regimes of controlled heating and cooling rates.

Open access

K. Michałek, M. Tkadleckova, K. Gryc and P. Machovcak

Abstract

The paper presents new results obtained from the evaluation of the chemical composition, microcleanliness and structure of the 90-ton heavy ingot cast in two successive heats, in which the content of Cu and Ni was intentionally modified in order to assess the degree of mutual mixing of the two heats in the ingot volume during the steel casting and solidification. For determination of chemical composition, spectral analysis and LECO were used. Microcleanliness evaluation was carried out on a Hitachi microanalytical complex equipped with the energy-dispersive spectrometer Vantage. To assess the composition of oxide non-metallic inclusions ternary diagrams were used. Structure of the basic steel matrix was induced by etching. The evaluation showed that in the casting of two successive heats, a certain degree of inhomogeneity of chemical composition, especially in the lower part of the ingot can be assumed in case of different composition. A greater segregation of sulphur in the central top part of the ingot was also detected. However, microcleanliness of the entire ingot is in general very good with low proportions of non-metallic inclusions.

Open access

K. Michalek, K. Gryc, M. Tkadleckova and D. Bocek

Model Study of Tundish Steel Intermixing and Operational Verification

The aim of this paper will be to present new knowledge and experience from numerical and physical modelling of metallurgical processes at the Department of Metallurgy, VSB - Technical University of Ostrava in Czech Republic and to explain especially the principle of tundish process simulations. The numerical modelling was realized by the CFD program FLUENT. The paper describes the pre-processing, processing and post-processing phases of numerical modelling. The physical modelling of the steel flow verification is based on a monitoring of the time dependency of concentration changes during experiments for individual tundish outlets. There exist two basic methods of KCl concentration change utilization in this "water" physical tundish modelling methodology. The utilization of mentioned methods are discussed and possible future developments are outlined for research of tundish steel intermixing.

Open access

K. Michalek, K. Gryc, M. Tkadlečková, J. Morávka, T. Huczala, D. Bocek and D. Horáková

This work compares the experimental results of nickel concentration measurements in the intermixed zone of the continuously cast round blooms with a diameter of 525 mm using two types of submerged entry nozzles (SEN) - a straight-through nozzle and one with 5-ports. Based on determination of the system and optical interface in the blooms a detailed study of concentration profiles on the bloom surface in a small radius area, on the right side and then also on a cross-section of the blooms, was carried out. The results were further analysed using approximation models, and were to be used to verify the proposed model for predicting intermixed zones for a continuous casting machine, developed based on the results of physical and numerical modelling.

Open access

M. Tkadlečková, P. Machovčák, K. Gryc, K. Michalek, L. Socha and P. Klus

The paper presents new knowledge and experience from numerical modelling of macrosegregation in heavy steel ingot using ProCAST software. The main aim of numerical modelling realized under the conditions of the Department of Metallurgy and Foundry and Regional Materials Science and Technology Centre at VSB-TU Ostrava is the optimization of the production of heavy steel ingots produced in V´ITKOVICE HEAVY MACHINERY a.s. Input parameters of computation were determined by the real conditions of parallel experimental casting of a 90-ton steel ingot. The input data were also verified by thermal analysis and thermography measurement. The numerical results of macrosegregation were compared with the chemical analysis evaluated in a real ingot section. According to the comparison, attention will be focused next on determination of the effect of boundary conditions of filling and solidification of the ingot on the size of macrosegregation.

Open access

L. Socha, K. Michalek, J. Bažan, K. Gryc, P. Machovčák, A. Opler and P. Styrnal

Abstract

This paper presents the industrial results of evaluation of efficiency of synthetic slags during the treatment of steel at the equipment of the secondary metallurgy under conditions of the steel plant VÍTKOVICE HEAVY MACHINERY a.s. The aim of the heats was to assess the influence of the briquetted and sintered synthetic slags based on Al2O3 aiming the course of the steel desulphurization and slag regime during the production and treatment of steel grade 42CrMo4 with the technology EAF→LF→ VD. Within the plant experiments, basic parameters influencing the steel desulphurization and slag regime were monitored: desulphurization degree, basicity, content of easily reducible oxides, proportion of CaO/Al2O3 and Mannesmann’s index. Obtained results allowed to compare the steel desulphurization and to evaluate the slag regime. It was proved that the synthetic slag presenting the briquetted mixture of secondary corundum raw materials can adequately replace the synthetic slag created from the sintered mixture of natural raw materials.

Open access

K. Michalek, K. Gryc, L. Socha, M. Tkadlečková, M. Saternus, J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder and L. Pindor

This paper deals with the possibilities of using physical modelling to study the slag entrainment in the tundish. A level of steel in the tundish is changing during sequential continuous casting. The most significant decrease in the steel level occurs when replacing ladles. It is generally known that if the height of steel level in the tundish drops below a certain critical level, it may generate vortexes over the nozzles and as a consequence entrainment of tundish slag into individual casting strands can occur. Thus, it is necessary to identify the critical level of steel for specific operational conditions. In this paper, the development of physical modelling methodology is described as well as physical model corresponding to operational continuous casting machine No. 2 in Třinecké železárny, a.s. The obtained results are discussed.

Open access

M. Tkadlečková, K. Michalek, K. Gryc, L. Socha, P. Jonšta, M. Saternus, J. Pieprzyca and T. Merder

Abstract

The paper describes the research and development of casting and solidification of slab ingots from special tool steels by means of numerical modelling using the finite element method. The pre-processing, processing and post-processing phases of numerical modelling are outlined. Also, problems with determining the thermophysical properties of materials and heat transfer between the individual parts of the casting system are discussed. Based on the type of grade of tool steel, the risk of final porosity is predicted. The results allowed to improve the production technology of slab ingots, and also to verify the ratio, the chamfer and the external/ internal shape of the wall of the new designed slab ingots.

Open access

K. Michalek, K. Gryc, L. Socha, M. Tkadlečková, M. Saternus, J. Pieprzyca, T. Merder and L. Pindor

Abstract

This paper deals with the issue of physical modelling of vortexes creation and tundish slag entrainment over the mouth of the nozzle into the individual casting strands. Proper physical model is equivalent to the operational continuous casting machine No. 2 in TŘINECKÉ ŽELEZÁRNY, a.s. Physical modelling methodology and simulated operational conditions are shortly described. Physical modelling was used for the evaluation of current conditions of steel casting at the application of different impact pads in the tundish. Further, laboratory measurement on the physical model aiming the determination of exact critical periods of vortexes creation and study of the slag entrainment as a consequence of changes in surface level during the tundish refilling to standard level were realised. The obtained results were analysed and discussed.