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Delair Silveira Dos Santos, Júlia Vieira Oberger, Rivaldo Niero, Theodoro Wagner, Franco Delle Monache, Alexandre Bella Cruz, Zhelmy Martin-Quintal and Valdir Cechinel Filho


This paper describes the seasonal phytochemical variation and the antimicrobial potential of V. zizanioides roots collected in Brazil. Considering the high levels of chemical constituents and their biological activity in dichloromethane fraction, the plants were grown in different seasons and the respective dichloromethane fractions were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against several pathogenic microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) using the agar dilution method. Yields of dichloromethane fractions from plants collected in the autumn and spring occurred in a higher proportion than in other seasons. Khusimol (2) was isolated by column chromatography and identified by NMR and CG-MS, along with other sesquiterpenes, including β-vetivenene (1), vetiselinenol (3), isovalencenol (4), vetivenic acid (5), α-vetivone (6) and β-vetivone (7). Some extracts showed promising antimicrobial effects, with MICs ranging from 31.25 to 500 μg mL-1. Kushimol was slightly active against the tested microorganisms.

Open access

Alexandra Rohracher, Judith Dobesberger, Claudia A. Granbichler, Julia Höfler, Giorgi Kuchukhidze, Martin Ortler, Iris Unterberger, Gerald Walser, Aljoscha Thomschewski and Eugen Trinka


Background. Early identification of potential epilepsy surgery candidates is essential to the treatment process.

Aim. To evaluate the clinical applicability of the ILAE definition of drug resistant epilepsy and its potential in identifying surgical candidates earlier compared to three established “older” definitions of drug resistant epilepsy.

Material and Methods. Retrospective analysis of 174 patients who underwent epilepsy surgery between 1998 and 2009. Clinical factors and course of disease were extracted from patients' charts. Drug resistant epilepsy was classified according to four definitions and the time until fulfillment of criteria compared.

Results. Mean time to fulfillment of criteria of drug resistant epilepsy ranged from 11.8 (standard deviation (SD) 9.8) to 15.6 years (SD 11.3). Time to drug resistance was significantly longer applying the only definition, requiring failure of three antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) (Canada definition), whereas time to fulfillment of all other definitions did not differ. Fifty percent of all patients experienced a seizure free period of ≥1 year prior to being classified as drug resistant, 13% entered another 1-year remission after fulfilling any criteria for drug resistance.

Conclusion. We conclude that the ILAE definition identifies drug resistant epilepsy, with similar latency like two of three formerly used definitions. It is an easy applicable tool to minimize the delay of referral to a specialized center. Intermittent remissions delay assessment of drug resistance for all definitions and 13% of patients enter a remission despite established drug resistance.