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  • Author: Jovana Jeremic x
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Role of Calcium Channel Blockers in Myocardial Preconditioning

Abstract

Coronary heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity worldwide. The effects of coronary heart disease are usually attributable to the detrimental effects of acute myocardial ischaemia-reperfusion injury. Newer strategies such as ischaemic or pharmacological preconditioning have been shown to condition the myocardium to ischaemia-reperfusion injury and thus reduce the final infarct size. This review investigates the role of calcium channel blockers in myocardial preconditioning. Additionally, special attention is given to nicorandil whose mechanism of action may be associated with the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning. There are still many uncertainties in understanding the role of these agents in preconditioning, but future research in this direction will certainly help reduce coronary heart disease.

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Effects of Ischemic and Proton Pump Inhibitors Preconditioning on Oxidative Stress of Isolated Rat Heart

Abstract

Aim of present study was to determine the participation of various biomarkers of oxidative damage: nitrite (NO2 ), superoxide anion radicals (O2 ), index of lipid peroxidation (TBARS) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in coronary circulation after application of the different models of preconditioning such as ischemic and preconditioning with proton pump inhibitors.

Examining a biochemical markers of oxidative damage we did not notice any increased production values of any parameter, according to that we can hypothesize that possible occurrence of reperfusion injury after ischemia and PPIs preconditioning is not mediated by this mechanism.

Due to the very difficult and controversial application of ischemic preconditioning in clinical practice, the results of this study suggest that in the future proton pump inhibitors can contribute to the prevention of myocardial damage following ischemia

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Emergency or Delayed Surgical Treatment of Unstable Supracondylar Humeral Fractures in Children?

Abstract

Supracondylar humeral fractures (SCHF) are the most common elbow fractures in children, representing 3% of all paediatric fractures. Treatment options for SCHF in children are based on the Gartland classification. Treatment of non-displaced fractures (type I) is non-operative. Plaster immobilization for 3 to 4 weeks is recommended, depending on the age of the child and fracture healing. Treatments of displaced supracondylar fractures (type II and III) of the humerus in children are still undefined in clinical practice. Because of divided opinions, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether delayed or immediate surgical treatment has an advantage in the treatment of supracondylar fractures in children. This is a prospective – retrospective clinical study. This study included 64 patients from 5 to 15 years old; 47 (73.4%) were boys and 17 (26.6%) were girls. The most common age range (59.4%) in this study was 5-8 years old. All patients were diagnosed with supracondylar fractures at the Institute for Orthopaedic Surgery “Banjica”. We analysed 17 parameters, which were obtained either from direct patient interviews or from their medical history. All patients were divided into two groups with matched characteristics. Group I consisted of 26 patients who had immediate operations. Group II consisted of 38 patients who had delayed operations.

Based on the results of the analysed parameters, consisting primarily of functional results, the absence of subjective symptoms and myositis ossificans one year after surgery suggests that emergency surgical treatment of displaced supracondylar humeral fractures is optimal.

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Effects Of Different PUFA Supplementation On Inflammatory Response Markers In Young Soccer Players

Abstract

Considering the limited knowledge regarding the effects of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs on the inflammatory response during physical activity, we aimed to evaluate the level of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in young soccer players before and after a maximal physical load test at the beginning and end of a two-month training process. The study included 75 young footballers from Football School “Kragujevac,” who were followed during the two-month training programme. The subjects were divided into the following groups: 1) control group (consumed a standard diet); 2) group that consumed fish oil (2500 mg of n-3 PUFAs per day); 3) group that consumed nutritional sunflower oil (2500 mg of n-6 PUFAs daily). The maximal progressive exercise test was performed using a treadmill belt. Venous blood samples were drawn 4 times for the determination of cytokine levels (IL-6 and TNF-α): before and after the exercise load test before the two-month training programme (initial measurement) and immediately before and after the exercise load test after the two-month training programme (control measurement). Supplementation with fish oil (n-3) has been associated with reduced levels of IL-6 compared with the initial values. After an acute bout of exercise, n-3 PUFAs did not show a significant effect on inflammatory marker dynamics, whereas n-6 PUFAs slightly stimulated the production of TNF-α.

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Treatment of Complex Femoral Fractures with the Long Intramedullary Gamma Nail

Abstract

The purpose of the current study was to present the authors’ experiences with the long intramedullary Gamma nail in the treatment of patients with complex femoral fractures. This retrospective study included 48 patients with complex femoral fractures. All patients had received fracture fixation treatments with long intramedullary Gamma nails from January 2007 to December 2015. The complex fractures of all patients were classified into 3 types, according to the anatomical locations of the fractures. Type I included combined fractures of the shaft and the proximal femur. Type II included segmental fractures. Type III included combined fractures of the shaft and distal femur. According to the Harris Hip Score, 85.4% of our patients had excellent and very good functional outcomes of the operative procedure. Complications occurred in 7 (14.58%) patients. The most common complications occurred in patients with combined fractures of the shaft and distal femur (50%). Based on the findings of this study, we conclude that the clinical and radiological results after the treatment of complex femoral fractures with the long intramedullary Gamma nail show good outcomes, with a high rate of bone union and minimal soft tissue damage. Experience with this procedure is important to prevent and minimise technical complications.

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Toxic Effects of Metallopharmaceuticals

Abstract

Discovery of the metallopharmaceutical cisplatin and its use in antitumour therapy has initiated the rational design and screening of metal-based anticancer agents as potential chemotherapeutics. In addition to the achievements of cisplatin and its therapeutic analogues, there are significant drawbacks to its use: resistance and toxicity. Over the past four decades, numerous transition metal complexes have been synthesized and investigated in vitro and in vivo. The most studied metals among these complexes are platinum and ruthenium. The key features of these investigations is to find novel metal complexes that could potentially exert less toxicity and equal or higher antitumour potency and to overcome other pharmacological deficiencies. Ru complexes have a different mode of action than cisplatin does, some of which are under clinical trials for treating metastatic or cisplatin-resistant tumours. This review consists of the current knowledge, published and unpublished, related to the toxicity of metallopharmaceuticals, and special attention is given to platinum [Pt(II) and Pt(IV)] and ruthenium [Ru(II) and Ru(III)] complexes.

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Effects Of The Direct Renin Inhibitor Aliskiren On Oxidative Stress In Isolated Rat Heart

Abstract

Increased activity of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) plays a significant role in the development and progression of various cardio-metabolic diseases, such as hypertension, atherosclerosis and heart failure. Aliskiren is the newest antihypertensive drug and the first orally active direct renin inhibitor to become available for clinical use. This study investigated the acute and direct effects of Aliskiren on different parameters of oxidative stress on isolated rat heart. The hearts of male Wistar albino rats (n = 24, 8 per experimental group, age 8 weeks, body mass 180–200 g), were excised and retrogradely perfused according to the Langendorfftechnique at a gradually increasing perfusion pressure (40-120 cmH2O). Markers of oxidative stress (NO2 , TBARS, H2O2 and O2 ) were measured spectrophotometrically after perfusion with three different concentrations of Aliskiren (0.1 μM, 1 μM, and 10 μM). The results demonstrated possible dose-dependent cardioprotective properties of Aliskiren, particularly with higher CPP. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels decreased with the highest dose of Aliskiren and higher CPP, and the same trend was observed in nitrite (NO2 ) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels. These findings indicate that the acute effects of Aliskiren do not likely promote the production of reactive oxygen species upon higher pressure with the highest dose. Aliskiren may exert beneficial effects on oxidative stress biomarkers.

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Effects of Provinols on Cardiodynamics and Coronary Flow in Islodated Rat Hearts

Abstract

Provinols are an alcohol-free extract of red wine that contains a wide range of polyphenols. Polyphenols are a group of chemical compounds found in diverse plants. Polyphenols are considered to protect against cardiovascular disease. Although some older epidemiological studies have indicated that the positive effects of red wine on heart disease can be attributed to the alcohol content alone, there is now powerful evidence that polyphenols present in red wine are responsible for these positive effects. The hearts of male Wistar albino rats (n = 36, 12 in each experimental group, 10 weeks old, body mass 250 ± 30 g) were excised and retrogradely perfused according to the Langendorff technique at a gradually increasing perfusion pressure (40-120 cmH2O). Parameters of cardiac function (dp/dt max, dp/dt min, SLVP, DLVP, HR, CF) were measured after perfusion with three different concentrations of provinols (5 μg/ml, 10 μg/ml and 50 μg/ml). Administration of the highest dose (50 μg/ml) induced a significant increase in dp/dt max, dp/dt min, HR and CF compared with control conditions at CPP = 40 cmH2O, while an intermediate dose increased dp/dt max at the same CPP. Generally viewed, the results of the present study suggest that provinols may have a beneficial effect on the intact myocardium and coronary circulation. These findings could constitute an important step in further investigation of these polyphenols under different representative experimental conditions in the heart, as well as providing a good basis for potential clinical studies in this field.

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Redox Status in Patients with Femoral Neck Fractures

Abstract

The femur transfers the body weight from the pelvic bone to the shinbone. Femur fractures are a significant cause of morbidity and mortality among the group of locomotor apparatus injuries, especially in the elderly population. Considering that oxidative stress occurs as a result of increased production of free radicals that damage cell function and cause numerous pathological conditions and diseases, the aim of this study was to investigate oxidative stress parameters in older patients with femoral neck fractures. This clinical study included 70 patients, of which 35 had femoral neck fractures (26 males and 9 females), while the other half of the patients formed the matched control group. Markers of oxidative stress (NO2 , TBARS, H2O2 and O2 -) and anti-oxidative enzymes (SOD, CAT, and GSH) were measured. Results showed that the levels of O2 - increased, while levels of NO2 -, H2O2 and all the antioxidative enzymes decreased in patients with femoral neck fractures. These findings indicate that fractures cause oxidative stress, probably because of the reduced activity of osteoblasts and the increased activity of osteoclasts.

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Тhe Impact Of Positive Acceleration (+Gz) on Antioxidant Capacity and Histopathological Alterations in Different Organs and Tissues in Rats

Abstract

Since the early 1940s, a significant amount of research has been conducted to describe the impact of the high-G acceleration on the cardiovascular system. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of the antioxidant enzyme system under biodynamic stress in the liver, heart and gastric mucosa in response to high-magnitude +Gz exposure in a rat model. Twenty adult male Wistar albino rats (10 rats per group; 9-11 weeks old, 200-250 g b.w.) were divided into the following two groups: control and G (exposed to a biodynamic stress model under positive (+7 Gz) acceleration for 40 s). The influence of acute biodynamic stress on pro-oxidative parameters in the rat liver (xanthine oxidase (XOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total content of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPx)) and on histopathological alterations in the liver, cardiac muscle and gastric mucosa was examined. Biodynamic stress resulting from positive (+7 Gz) acceleration resulted in a highly statistically signifi cant increase of CAT GSH-Px activity compared to the control group. The LPx levels were significantly decreased, but the GSH contents and the activities of other enzymes were not significantly changed. Significant microscopic changes in the liver, heart and gastric mucosa were observed in the G group. These results clearly indicate that +Gz acceleration alters biochemical systems. These alterations in cellular processes may be mediated by influences of hypoxia or ischaemia via changes in the antioxidant capacity.

Open access