When observing the development and operation of modern cities, one can quickly come to the conclusion that in the recent years the chief factor of the spatial-structural transformation of cities in Poland (though not only there) and the spatial behaviour of their residents has been motorisation, and more precisely, the car. This is so because the car, while facilitating and intensifying mobility, makes it possible to draw places of residence apart from those of goal implementation. The ever-growing number of cars moving around a city leads to disturbances in street traffic, makes the service of residents worse, causes many road accidents, and brings about unfavourable qualitative changes in the environment. That is why in many recent conceptions of urban development there appear measures intended to restrict the use of cars, which is one of the ways leading to the construction of ‘a city for people’. This paper presents the effect of motorisation on modern cities as documented by statistical data concerning Poznań, one of the largest and oldest Polish cities.
Income and Expenditure of the Polish Population in 2006 (An analysis of Regional Diversification)
Changes in the political system after 1989 have led to the opening up of new areas of study in many fields of research, including socio - economic geography. One such example, undoubtedly, is the regional diversification of income and expenditure of the population, which was the subject of the ongoing studies, whose selected results are presented in this study. An analysis of the level of income and expenditure of the population was important, as it provided information on: the level of socio-economic development, the standard of living, the level of civilization and culture development, consumption structures, consumption patterns, changes in the structure of demand, etc. Therefore, it was significant for understanding the process of changes which have taken place in Poland. The analysis also provided new generic approaches (problems). This article presents, above all, the research results of the regional diversification of income and expenditure levels as well as the consumption structures of the Polish population in 2006 (in an elementary, complex and synthetic section). A further aim of the research, was to determine statistically significant factors which influence the income and consumption patterns - both factors which had a positive impact (the level of urbanization, the efficiency and productivity of the economy, agricultural produce) and a negative one (unemployment, age structure of the population, population growth and industrial production). This resulted from the conviction that, each description is valuable only if it is supplemented with an explanation of the reasons for such a state of affairs.
Trajectories of the demographic development of Poland after 1989
One of the major problems of contemporary Poland is its increasingly difficult and complicated demographic situation. This makes the identification of demographic trends of the recent years an important research task. The article presents an assessment of Poland's demographic situation after 1989, i.e. after the change of the country's socio-political system, using the graphic method of trajectories. It is one of the possible, though less popular, methods of studying time series, offering a new perspective on various processes, here demographic ones. The article has two aims: cognitive and methodological.
One of the characteristic features of the modern world is the dynamics of demographic changes. Depending on their nature and intensity, they can be a driving force behind socio-economic development or doom it to stagnation or regression. There is no doubt, however, that a declining demographic potential, especially unfavourable changes in the age structure of the population (an ageing society), may contribute to economic difficulties in the given area, often leading to social problems. The aim of the research the results of which are presented in this article was to analyse regional differences in the age structure of Poland’s population in two time intervals, viz. the years 1999 and 2010, using multivariate techniques, and more specifically, principal components analysis and cluster analysis. They both make it possible to accommodate many features of the population age structure simultaneously, thus better illustrating the two situations (the years 1999 and 2010) and changes that took place in between, than univariate approaches
In the latest conceptions of urban development planning, special attention is paid to the resident. This is reflected especially in the increasingly popular idea of creating ‘a city for people’. This somewhat banal slogan has got an increasingly sensible and justified theoretical support, as well as examples of practical solutions. The idea of planning urban development to meet human needs (a city for people) underlies many conceptions of urban development, especially those the basic goal of which is to limit suburbanisation unfavourable from a general social point of view and to rationalise the mobility of city residents. It has long been known that their mobility reflects the spatial structure of a city, and that their ever more intensive movement is not favourable from the ecological, social and economic points of view. In this situation it is necessary to shape the spatial-functional structure of the city in a way that will, first, restrict this mobility and, secondly, that will change the ways and means by which residents move. However, in order to make changes in the existing spatial structures in a rational way, it is necessary to know the mobility of city dwellers, its causes, directions, distances covered, and duration. What we shall present in this paper are structural and functional conclusions resulting from an analysis of the mobility of residents relevant for planning. Although our reflections will be primarily theoretical in nature, in many cases they will be backed up by empirical studies, mostly concerning Poznań.
The change in Poland’s systemic conditions and its membership of the European Union make it necessary to take a new look at the organisation, structure and operation of the Polish planning system. In place of two, not always well coordinated, types of planning: socio-economic, now called strategic, and physical, integrated planning is proposed which seeks to combine those two categories into a single stream and treat the objects of planning as a functional whole. This type of approach is recommended by international organisations of urban planners (the New Athens Charter) and academic planners. Integrated planning of urban development is also written in the Leipzig Charter on Sustainable European Cities, an EU urban policy document. However, each planning procedure requires the adoption of certain initial assumptions on which to base the conception of an integrated plan of the socio-economic and spatial development of a city that would accommodate its natural, social and economic spheres. The special character of a city as a living environment (a large population number, high population density, many social structures, etc.) demands giving the assumptions an anthropocentric orientation, i.e. with human beings as the addressees of the planned measures. This means that human needs should figure most prominently in the formulation of the assumptions of urban development. And since man’s diurnal activity is one of the best indicators of articulated needs, an analysis of this activity can provide a basis for the formulation of development assumptions. In this paper we present a general model of integrated planning of the development of a city formulated primarily in terms of the diurnal activity of its residents, but also employing other factors.