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  • Author: Jelena Stanojević x
  • Molecular Biology x
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High Interleukin 27 Production is Associated with Early Clinical Stage and Localized Disease in Patients with Melanoma


Background: The immune response in patients with melanoma is an important focus of research due to the tumor’s resistance and immunotherapy possibilities. IL-27 is one of the cytokines with antitumor properties. The role of IL-27 in the pathogenesis of melanoma is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between serum IL-27 levels and the clinical parameters of melanoma patients.

Methods: The IL-27 concentration was determined by commercial ELISA in serum samples from melanoma patients (n=72) and healthy control subjects (n=44). Patients were classified according to AJCC clinical stage, TNM stage, the length of progression-free interval (PFI) and the extent of the disease (localized or widespread).

Results: Average IL-27 values were increased in patients with early stages of melanoma compared to patients with terminal stages and control values. The highest IL-27 concentration was found in stage IIa. Patients in stages III and IV had significantly lower values of IL-27 compared to control. Patients with localized melanoma and shorter PFI had insignificantly increased IL-27 levels compared to patients with widespread disease and longer PFI. Patients with metastatic disease and stage TNM4 had significantly lower average IL-27 values compared to control. Patients with high production of IL-27 (>1000 pg/mL) were most numerous in IIa AJCC stage, with initial tumor size TNM2 and in the group of patients with localized disease.

Conclusions: High levels of IL-27 in patients with melanoma are associated with the initial stages and localized disease.

Open access
Downregulation of AdipoR1 is Associated with Increased Circulating Adiponectin Levels in Serbian Chronic Kidney Disease Patients


Background: Since the rise in plasma adiponectin levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not yet been elucidated, we sought to investigate if patients on hemodialysis (HD) have altered expression of adiponectin receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared to healthy subjects.

Methods: This study included 31 patients with chronic kidney disease on HD and 33 healthy subjects (CG). Circulating adiponectin levels were measured by ELISA while AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA levels in PBMCs were determined by real-time PCR.

Results: Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly higher in patients compared to control group (P=0.036). After adjustment for age, BMI and creatinine, this difference became even more significant (P=0.004). In both groups adiponectin correlated with creatinine (CG: r=−0.472, P=0.006; HD: r=−0.375, P=0.038), triglycerides (CG: r=−0.490, P=0.004; HD: r=−0.488, P=0.005), insulin (CG: r=−0.386, P=0.038; HD: r=−0.506, P=0.012) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (CG: r=−0.672, P<0.001; HD: r=−0.584, P=0.001). Significantly lower expression of PBMCs AdipoR1 mRNA was found in patients compared to CG (P=0.034), while AdipoR2 mRNA levels were similarly expressed in PBMCs in both groups.

Conclusions: Complex pathological processes in CKD cause downregulation of AdipoR1 which could ultimately influence AdipoR1 protein levels leading to a state of »adiponectin resistance«.

Open access
Cardiovascular Risk Factors In 7–13 Years Old Children From Vojvodina (Serbia)


Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease.

Methods: Study included 624 children (316 boys, 308 girls), aged from 7-13 years. We analysed socio-demographic data (BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular family history, smoking status), as well as lipid status with lipoprotein little a-Lp(a), and apolipoproteins: Apo AI, Apo B-100 for all children. This enabled us to calculate new atherogenic indices Tg/HDL-c, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). Cardiovascular risk for later life was estimated by using modified Risk Score for Young Individuals (RS), which divided the subjects according to the score level: low, medium and higher risk.

Results: The older children (13 y) had better lipid status than the younger children, i.e. significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and non-HDL-C concentration and significantly higher HDL-C concentration than the younger children and this was in accordance with the RS level. Children with a positive family history of CV disease had significantly higher Lp(a) concentration and blood pressure. LPI was significantly higher in children with a higher RS.

Conclusions: The results of our work could be used for cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy children to provide preventive measures which could control the change able risk factors.

Open access
Superoxide dismutase isoenzymes gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in patients with coronary artery disease



Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in wide world population. Dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to disruption of endothelium structure and function, atherosclerosis and CAD. Our study was aimed to determine whether Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) gene expression could be modulated by oxidative stress in CAD patients.


This study included 77 CAD patients and 31 apparently healthy persons. Serum lipid levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) were measured. SOD isoenzymes gene expression was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.


Mn SOD messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were significantly lower in CAD patients than in controls (p=0.011), while Cu/Zn SOD mRNA levels did not change significantly between tested groups (p=0.091). We found significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (p<0.001) and TAS (p<0.001) levels and significantly higher hsCRP (p=0.002) and TBARS (p<0.001) in CAD patients than in controls. There were significant positive correlations between TAS and Mn SOD mRNA (ρ=0.243, p=0.020) and TAS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (r=0.359, p<0.001). TBARS negatively correlated only with Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (ρ=-0.215, p=0.040). TAS levels remained independent predictor for Mn SOD mRNA levels (OR=2.995, p=0.034).


Results of this study showed that Mn SOD gene expression were decreased in CAD patients compared to controls and can be modulated by non-enzymatic antioxidant status in blood.

Open access
Association Between Oxidative Stress and Melanoma Progression


Background: Overproduction of free radicals accompanied with their insufficient removal/neutralization by antioxidative defense system impairs redox hemostasis in living organisms. Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in all the stages of carcinogenesis and malignant melanocyte transformation. The aim of this study was to examine association between oxidative stress development and different stages of melanoma. Methods: The measured oxidative stress parameters included: superoxide anion radical, total and manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde. Oxidative stress parameters were measured spectrophotometrically in serum samples from melanoma patients (n=72) and healthy control subjects (n=30). Patients were classified according to AJCC clinical stage. Results: Average superoxide anion and malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly higher in melanoma patients than in control group, with the highest value of superoxide anion in stage III, while malondialdehyde highest value was in stage IV. The activity of total and manganese superoxide dismutase was insignificantly higher in melanoma patients than in control group, while catalase activity was significantly higher. The highest activity of total activity of manganese superoxide dismutase was in stage IV. Catalase activity was increasing with the disease progression achieving the maximum in stage III. Conclusion: Results of our study suggest that melanoma is oxidative stress associated disease, as well as deteriorated cell functioning at mitochondrial level.

Open access