One of the main objectives pursued in agriculture as the primary sector in the economy is to increase the labour productivity. In order for this objective to be achieved, it is necessary to increase agricultural production, while at the same time preserve natural resources and the environment. If the creators of development policies are to formulate effective policies and strategies, adequate information relating to all vital determinants of productivity of agriculture is required. Therefore, the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia annually prepares and publishes, among others, information on the value of agricultural production and the number of employees in agriculture. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the level of productivity of agriculture in the Republic of Serbia in the period from 2007 to 2013. It also analyses the impact of labour productivity in agriculture in the share of GDP that is realized in this sector of the national economy. Agricultural population, as one of the factors that affect productivity in agriculture is analysed in terms of education and employment. The aim is to quantify the level of productivity in agriculture, as well as to examine the interdependence between labour productivity and GDP in agriculture, in order to point to the critical determinants of productivity that require improvement. The methods used in this paper are: analysis method, synthesis method, comparison method, descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis. Research results show that Serbia has achieved an unenviable level of labour productivity in agriculture within the analysed period of time. Research in this study is useful for the creators and holders of the development policy for the future guidance of development policies and strategies of the agricultural sector in Serbia.