Jelena Pantic Bisevac, Ivan Stanojevic, Zeljko Mijuskovic, Tatjana Banovic, Mirjana Djukic and Danilo Vojvodic
Background: The immune response in patients with melanoma is an important focus of research due to the tumor’s resistance and immunotherapy possibilities. IL-27 is one of the cytokines with antitumor properties. The role of IL-27 in the pathogenesis of melanoma is still unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the association between serum IL-27 levels and the clinical parameters of melanoma patients.
Methods: The IL-27 concentration was determined by commercial ELISA in serum samples from melanoma patients (n=72) and healthy control subjects (n=44). Patients were classified according to AJCC clinical stage, TNM stage, the length of progression-free interval (PFI) and the extent of the disease (localized or widespread).
Results: Average IL-27 values were increased in patients with early stages of melanoma compared to patients with terminal stages and control values. The highest IL-27 concentration was found in stage IIa. Patients in stages III and IV had significantly lower values of IL-27 compared to control. Patients with localized melanoma and shorter PFI had insignificantly increased IL-27 levels compared to patients with widespread disease and longer PFI. Patients with metastatic disease and stage TNM4 had significantly lower average IL-27 values compared to control. Patients with high production of IL-27 (>1000 pg/mL) were most numerous in IIa AJCC stage, with initial tumor size TNM2 and in the group of patients with localized disease.
Conclusions: High levels of IL-27 in patients with melanoma are associated with the initial stages and localized disease.
Miron Sopić, Jelena Joksić, Vesna Spasojević-Kalimanovska, Nataša Bogavac-Stanojević, Sanja Simić-Ogrizović, Milica Kravljača and Zorana Jelić Ivanović
Background: Since the rise in plasma adiponectin levels in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients has not yet been elucidated, we sought to investigate if patients on hemodialysis (HD) have altered expression of adiponectin receptors in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) compared to healthy subjects.
Methods: This study included 31 patients with chronic kidney disease on HD and 33 healthy subjects (CG). Circulating adiponectin levels were measured by ELISA while AdipoR1 and AdipoR2 mRNA levels in PBMCs were determined by real-time PCR.
Results: Plasma adiponectin levels were significantly higher in patients compared to control group (P=0.036). After adjustment for age, BMI and creatinine, this difference became even more significant (P=0.004). In both groups adiponectin correlated with creatinine (CG: r=−0.472, P=0.006; HD: r=−0.375, P=0.038), triglycerides (CG: r=−0.490, P=0.004; HD: r=−0.488, P=0.005), insulin (CG: r=−0.386, P=0.038; HD: r=−0.506, P=0.012) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (CG: r=−0.672, P<0.001; HD: r=−0.584, P=0.001). Significantly lower expression of PBMCs AdipoR1 mRNA was found in patients compared to CG (P=0.034), while AdipoR2 mRNA levels were similarly expressed in PBMCs in both groups.
Conclusions: Complex pathological processes in CKD cause downregulation of AdipoR1 which could ultimately influence AdipoR1 protein levels leading to a state of »adiponectin resistance«.
Darko D. Dželajlija, Slavica S. Spasić, Jelena M. Kotur-Stevuljevic and Nataša B. Bogavac-Stanojevic
Background: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease which starts early in life and depends on many factors, an important one being dyslipoproteinemia. According to several studies, atherosclerotic plaques or their precursors could be seen in children younger than 10 years. During later life, interaction with a sedentary way of life, as well as unhealthy nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, obesity and family history of cardiovascular disease cause the burden of atherosclerotic disease.
Methods: Study included 624 children (316 boys, 308 girls), aged from 7-13 years. We analysed socio-demographic data (BMI, blood pressure, cardiovascular family history, smoking status), as well as lipid status with lipoprotein little a-Lp(a), and apolipoproteins: Apo AI, Apo B-100 for all children. This enabled us to calculate new atherogenic indices Tg/HDL-c, lipid tetrad index (LTI) and lipid pentad index (LPI). Cardiovascular risk for later life was estimated by using modified Risk Score for Young Individuals (RS), which divided the subjects according to the score level: low, medium and higher risk.
Results: The older children (13 y) had better lipid status than the younger children, i.e. significantly lower total cholesterol, LDL-C, triglycerides and non-HDL-C concentration and significantly higher HDL-C concentration than the younger children and this was in accordance with the RS level. Children with a positive family history of CV disease had significantly higher Lp(a) concentration and blood pressure. LPI was significantly higher in children with a higher RS.
Conclusions: The results of our work could be used for cardiovascular risk assessment in apparently healthy children to provide preventive measures which could control the change able risk factors.
Ana Ninić, Nataša Bogavac-Stanojević, Miron Sopić, Jelena Munjas, Jelena Kotur-Stevuljević, Milica Miljković, Tamara Gojković, Dimitra Kalimanovska-Oštrić and Vesna Spasojević-Kalimanovska
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is one of the most important causes of mortality and morbidity in wide world population. Dyslipidemia, inflammation and oxidative stress may contribute to disruption of endothelium structure and function, atherosclerosis and CAD. Our study was aimed to determine whether Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn SOD) and Mn superoxide dismutase (Mn SOD) gene expression could be modulated by oxidative stress in CAD patients.
This study included 77 CAD patients and 31 apparently healthy persons. Serum lipid levels, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), total antioxidant status (TAS) and thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances (TBARS) were measured. SOD isoenzymes gene expression was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Mn SOD messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) levels were significantly lower in CAD patients than in controls (p=0.011), while Cu/Zn SOD mRNA levels did not change significantly between tested groups (p=0.091). We found significantly lower high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c) (p<0.001) and TAS (p<0.001) levels and significantly higher hsCRP (p=0.002) and TBARS (p<0.001) in CAD patients than in controls. There were significant positive correlations between TAS and Mn SOD mRNA (ρ=0.243, p=0.020) and TAS and Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (r=0.359, p<0.001). TBARS negatively correlated only with Cu/Zn SOD mRNA (ρ=-0.215, p=0.040). TAS levels remained independent predictor for Mn SOD mRNA levels (OR=2.995, p=0.034).
Results of this study showed that Mn SOD gene expression were decreased in CAD patients compared to controls and can be modulated by non-enzymatic antioxidant status in blood.
Jelena Pantic Bisevac, Mirjana Djukic, Ivan Stanojevic, Ivana Stevanovic, Zeljko Mijuskovic, Ana Djuric, Borko Gobeljic, Tatjana Banovic and Danilo Vojvodic
Background: Overproduction of free radicals accompanied with their insufficient removal/neutralization by antioxidative defense system impairs redox hemostasis in living organisms. Oxidative stress has been shown to be involved in all the stages of carcinogenesis and malignant melanocyte transformation. The aim of this study was to examine association between oxidative stress development and different stages of melanoma. Methods: The measured oxidative stress parameters included: superoxide anion radical, total and manganese superoxide dismutase, catalase and malondialdehyde. Oxidative stress parameters were measured spectrophotometrically in serum samples from melanoma patients (n=72) and healthy control subjects (n=30). Patients were classified according to AJCC clinical stage. Results: Average superoxide anion and malondialdehyde concentrations were significantly higher in melanoma patients than in control group, with the highest value of superoxide anion in stage III, while malondialdehyde highest value was in stage IV. The activity of total and manganese superoxide dismutase was insignificantly higher in melanoma patients than in control group, while catalase activity was significantly higher. The highest activity of total activity of manganese superoxide dismutase was in stage IV. Catalase activity was increasing with the disease progression achieving the maximum in stage III. Conclusion: Results of our study suggest that melanoma is oxidative stress associated disease, as well as deteriorated cell functioning at mitochondrial level.
Jelena Ceković, Dragana Ristić, Zoran Igrutinović, Biljana Vuletić, Andjelka Stojković, Ana Vujić, Raša Medović, Marina Stanojević and Aleksandra M. Simović
Thromboses are considered to be rare disorders in the pediatric population. However, they occur more frequently during the neonatal period. Potential risk factors for thrombosis onset include frequent use of peripheral, umbilical or central venous / arterial catheters, inflammation, disseminated intravascular coagulation, liver disorders, hypovolemia, asphyxia, congenital heart disease, polycythemia and dehydration. On the seventh day of life in male premature infant born in 29th / 30th gestation week, we noticed an increased level of inflammatory parameters. The patient’s right leg was edematous and cold with immeasurable pulse and pressure over the femoral artery, mottled skin and no spontaneous mobility. In the following days, edema becomes generalized and abdominal meteorism with bile vomiting appeared. Vascular surgeon established a diagnosis of the acute femoral artery stenosis (CW Doppler). We initiated continuous infusion of unfractionated heparin, but due to the development of hemorrhagic syndrome, next day we replaced it with low molecular weight heparin. The hemorrhagic disease was treated with tranexamic acid, fresh frozen plasma and concentrated platelets of the corresponding blood group. Signs of recirculation were registered with a palpable femoral pulse. CW Doppler confirmed complete recovery. In spite of the fact that antithrombotic therapy can cause numerous complications, it should be considered in vital indications.
One of the main objectives pursued in agriculture as the primary sector in the economy is to increase the labour productivity. In order for this objective to be achieved, it is necessary to increase agricultural production, while at the same time preserve natural resources and the environment. If the creators of development policies are to formulate effective policies and strategies, adequate information relating to all vital determinants of productivity of agriculture is required. Therefore, the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia annually prepares and publishes, among others, information on the value of agricultural production and the number of employees in agriculture. The aim of this paper is to examine the changes in the level of productivity of agriculture in the Republic of Serbia in the period from 2007 to 2013. It also analyses the impact of labour productivity in agriculture in the share of GDP that is realized in this sector of the national economy. Agricultural population, as one of the factors that affect productivity in agriculture is analysed in terms of education and employment. The aim is to quantify the level of productivity in agriculture, as well as to examine the interdependence between labour productivity and GDP in agriculture, in order to point to the critical determinants of productivity that require improvement. The methods used in this paper are: analysis method, synthesis method, comparison method, descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analysis. Research results show that Serbia has achieved an unenviable level of labour productivity in agriculture within the analysed period of time. Research in this study is useful for the creators and holders of the development policy for the future guidance of development policies and strategies of the agricultural sector in Serbia.
Nikola Unković, Ivica Dimkić, Slaviša Stanković, Aleksa Jelikic, Dragan Stanojević, Slađana Popović, Miloš Stupar, Jelena Vukojević and Milica Ljaljević Grbić
The main purpose of this study was to isolate airborne fungi and assess seasonal variations in air contamination with their particulates by determining the levels of their propagules in the nave and exonarthex of a church. We also monitored indoor microclimate as a determining factor for fungal proliferation on wall paintings, spore release, and transmission through the air. The temperature and relative humidity of the nave favoured fungal growth. A total of 33 fungi were isolated, mainly of the phylum Ascomycota, and to the lesser extent of the phyla Zygomycota and Basidiomycota. The most common were the fungi of the genera Penicillium and Aspergillus (23.55 % and 20.58 %, respectively). Sørensen’s quotient of similarity (0.37) suggests moderate species overlap and constant exchange of fungal propagules between the nave and exonarthex. The autumn had the highest diversity, with 17 documented taxa, followed by the summer and the winter. The spring had only eight taxa. Quantitative analysis of the airborne mycobiota in the nave (430±84.85 to 1880±106.07 CFU m-3) and exonarthex (715±59.62 to 2295±91.92 CFU m-3) showed very high contamination throughout the year, with values exceeding the maximum permissible concentrations by most standards. Many of the fungi determined in this study are known for their biodeteriogenic, toxigenic, and allergenic properties, and are a threat not only to occasional visitors and staff, but also to valuable works of art decorating nave walls.
Ljubiša Veljović, Aleksandra Knežević, Nenad Milić, Dejan Krnjaić, Radoš Miković, Andrea Zorić, Maja Marković, Vesna Milićević, Miodrag Stamenković, Maja Stanojević, Jelena Maksimović-Zorić, Tamaš Petrović and Jakov Nišavić
The presence of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) was examined in 119 nasal swabs collected from cattle with severe respiratory infection. All samples were conducted for virus isolation on the MDBK cell line. The cytopathic effect was observed after 48h to 72h in cells inoculated with eight samples (8/119; 6.7%). The confirmation of isolated strains of BPIV3 was done by the virus-neutralization test. In addition, all samples of bovine nasal swabs were also examined for the presence of BPIV3 virus using RT-PCR with primers specific for the part of HN gene. The presence of BPIV3 was detected in eight samples (8/119; 6.7%) that were also positive upon virus isolation. The molecular characterization based on nucleotide sequencing of the part of the HN gene showed that all BPIV3 isolates belonged to genotype C of BPIV3. They branched in one distinct cluster with three different branches, but these branches were very similar to each other (98.1% to 99.8%). Serbian BPIV3c isolates were most similar to the Chinese BPIV3c isolates SD0805, SD0809 and SD0835 (from 97.92% to 99.7%), and to South Korean (12Q061), Japanese (HS9) and American (TVMDL16 and TVMDL20) BPIV3c strains (from 97.1% to 98.8%), and distinct from American (TVMDL15and TVMDL17) and Australian (Q5592) BPI3V genotype B strains (only 79.9% to 82.3% similarity), as well as from the genotype A BPIV3 strains from different countries published in GenBank.