I.S. Kruk, O.V. Gordeenko, T.P Kot, Andrzej Marczuk, Jan Kamiński and Maciej Kuboń
The objective of the paper is to determine the optimal geometric parameters of the windshield device limiting the spray drift by wind in herbicides spraying. Tests were carried out with the use of the planning methods of experiments and statistical methods of processing of the obtained results. The result of the research consisted in obtaining structural parameters of the windshield made in the shape of gratings with rectangular boards. It was found out that this device may be used at the wind speed exceeding agrotechnological sizes. The research results will be used in the work on devices protecting against wind at a precise herbicides spraying.
Properly designed housing buildings, with regard to reduction of a negative influence on environment, are necessary for ensuring sustainable development in agriculture. The objective of this paper was to show the results of environmental conditions research on high milk yield dairy cattle in different housing systems. Temperature and relative humidity of air and concentrations of harmful gases − ammonia and carbon dioxide accompanying them were investigated.
Piotr Brodzki, Krzysztof Niemczuk, Krzysztof Kostro, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek and Jan Marczuk
There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control). The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum), the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001), both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001). The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.
Photovoltaic systems are very efficient concerning proper utilization of solar radiation. However, the nanotechnology solution can replace the photovoltaic by the use of new production technology to lower the price of solar cells to one tenth. Sun provides nearly unlimited energy resource, but existing solar energy harvesting technologies are quite expensive and cannot compete with fossil fuels. The central part of Poland, which represents about 50 percent of the area, gives solar radiation at the level of 1000 kWh·m−2/year. Other new developments, which can help improve existing efficiency of solar systems are: diatoms utilization, artificial photosynthesis, nanoleaves and rotation solar towers.
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Marcin R. Tatara
The aim of the study was to examine cytological changes in the uterus in cows during the follicular and luteal phases of the ovarian cycle, as well as to compare two different methods (brush and flushing) used for cytological material collection and to evaluate their usefulness for monitoring of the endometrium. Ovarian cycle phases were confirmed by ultrasound and by the level of sex hormones (17-β-estradiol and progesterone). The following types of cells were identified in the cytological smears: type I - surface cells; type II - intermediate cells; type III - basal cells; polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs); L - lymphocytes. The number of type I and III cells was statistically significantly higher in the follicular phase than in the luteal phase, both in smears prepared using a brush (P<0.001) and by uterine flush (P=0.003). The number of type II cells was statistically significantly higher in the luteal phase than in the follicular phase in both methods (P<0.001). The results of the study show that phases of the ovarian cycle in cows can be identified based on changes in the quality and percentage of different types of endometrial cells in a cytological examination.
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Marcin R. Tatara
The aim of the study was to evaluate selected parameters representing reproductive system conditions in cows suffering from left-sided displacement of the abomasum (LDA). Eighty Holstein- Friesian cows were divided into control (n=40) and LDA (n=40) groups. Haematological and biochemical evaluations were performed in the control group and in cows with LDA before and after surgical treatment. Cytological and ultrasound examinations of the uterus were performed at 21 (baseline), 35 and 63 days after parturition. In the LDA group, significantly decreased concentrations of calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, copper, potassium, glucose and total cholesterol were stated, while aspartate aminotransferase activity, white blood cell count, erythrocyte count, haematocrit, haemoglobin content and concentration of β-hydroxybutyrate, free fatty acids and bilirubin were increased (all P<0.05). Percentage of neutrophils in the uterus and the uterus diameter were increased in the LDA group at the baseline and at 35 days after parturition (P<0.001). The neutrophil percentage was also increased at 63 days after parturition in the LDA group (P<0.001). Number of days to first oestrus, number of services per conception and calving-to-conception interval were higher in the LDA group (P<0.001). This study has shown reproductive system changes and impaired fertility in dairy cows as the consequence of LDA occurrence. Thus, LDA treatment in cows should be combined with diagnostic evaluation of the uterus and reproductive system to improve reproductive performance. As indicated in the cytological examination, a subclinical inflammatory process may last even 60 days after parturition, leading to substantial impairment of reproductive function in dairy cows.
Katarzyna Dudek, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Dariusz Bednarek, Jan Marczuk, Anna Kycko and Michał Reichert
The aim of the study was to assess the changes of blood parameters in 12 three-week-old Polish Merino sheep subjected to experimental jaagsiekte sheep retrovirus (JSRV) infection.
Material and Methods: Haematological (WBC with leukocyte subpopulations: GRA, LYM, MID, and RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC, HGB, HCT, PLT, and MPV) and biochemical blood parameters (acid/base balance, cation/anion content, and gasometry) were determined in blood samples collected one month after JSRV infection, then at four-week intervals for five consecutive months.
Results: A decrease in RBC, HCT, MCV, PLT, MPV, and LYM values in comparison with controls was found in the last month of observation. On the other hand, at the same time, an increase in HGB, MCH, MCHC, WBC, MID, and GRA indices was observed. Moreover, at the end of experiment blood gasometric indices such as pCO2, HCO3, and tCO2, and Na and K ion concentrations were higher in the affected lambs than in the healthy animals. The pH values of the challenged animals exhibited less alkaline character than in the case of controls, which was associated with a decrease in O2% saturation. However, the majority of differences between JSRV inoculated and control groups was not statistically significant.
Conclusion: The observed changes in the examined blood parameters can be considered as prodromal symptoms in the preclinical phase of adenocarcinoma development associated with JSRV infection.
Piotr Brodzki, Adam Brodzki, Krzysztof Kostro, Łukasz Kurek, Jan Marczuk and Leszek Krakowski
The experiment was conducted on 30 Holstein-Friesian cows: 10 cows in the follicular phase of the cycle and in the luteal phase 10 d later, 10 cows with follicular cysts, and 10 with luteal cysts. The presence of the ovarian structures was confirmed by ultrasonography. Serum levels of progesterone and 17β-oestradiol were tested with ELISA. Samples for cytological examination were collected from the uterus of all cows using a cytological brush. Following staining, the smears were evaluated in terms of quality and percentages of endometrial cells. In the follicular phase of the oestrous cycle, cells of type A - superficial cells (64.6 ± 4.48) were proportionally the largest group of cells. Cells of type C - basal cells (19.8 ± 2.75) were also present. In the luteal phase, the highest percentage of cells was of type B - intermediate cells (76.9 ± 4.26). When follicular cysts were present on the ovaries, the cytology resembled the follicular phase of the cycle, but with many younger type C cells (33.1 ± 4.11). In the case of luteal cysts on the ovaries, the cytology was similar to that of the luteal phase of the cycle, however with a lower percentage of type B cells (58.1 ± 5.71), and a slightly higher percentage of the other types. The differences in the cytological image of the uterus when different ovarian structures are present, depend on the hormonal activity of those structures. Due to the lack of literature data, the results of the study are important as a model, and may substantially facilitate identification of phases of the oestrus cycle, or the pathologies described, as well as indicate the current status of the endometrium