J. Vadlejch, I. Langrová, M. Borovský, M. Sedmíková, I. Jankovská, J. Fechtner and A. Lytvynets
The differences in protein and enzymatic profiles of infective larvae (L3) of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, both induced and non-induced to hypobiosis, have been evaluated by means of SDS-PAGE and densitometric analysis as well as by semiquantitative micromethod API-ZYM (Bio-Mérieux, France). Quantitative differences were identified in protein levels between the induced and non-induced larvae, where the amount of two polypeptides (200–220 kDa) decreased in range 32.3–35.4 % and the amount of six polypeptides (20–28 kDa) increased in range 20.0–27.0 % in the samples of induced larvae. In contrast to non-induced larvae, on gelatin-substrate gel in L3
in vitro released (IVR) proteases from larvae conditioned to hypobiosis, zones of proteolysis were observed between 21 and 34 kDa.
A. Lytvynets, I. Langrová, J. Lachout, J. Vadlejch, A. Fučíková and I. Jankovská
The effects of ivermectin were studied in laboratory rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. Ivermectin was administered over four 5-days periods in drinking water; the ivermectin dose was 2.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. All the rats were weighed every five days and their ova production was monitored by a cellophane — tape test. Every fifth day six males and six females from the experimental group were euthanized and examined for adult pinworms and larvae. The rats’ health condition, behaviour and consumption of food and water were monitored every day. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of orally administered ivermectin as a treatment against adult pinworms and their larvae in laboratory rat colonies.
J. Vadlejch, D. Lukešová, J. Vašek, P. Vejl, P. Sedlák, Z. Čadková, I. Langrová, I. Jankovská and O. Salaba
A combined approach in the determination of Haemonchus nematodes from sheep was applied in this trial. Using selected morphological characters 90.2 % females and 84.2 % males of Haemonchus contortus and 9.8 % females and 15.8 % males of Haemonchus placei were identified. Although cluster analysis based on morphological identification clearly separated two Haemonchus species, H. contortus was exclusively detected in all specimens using restriction cleavage of the ITS-2 region with FspBI endonuclease as well as through the sequencing analysis. Because sheep from both farms have never had contact with other ruminants, and the farmers apply only closed flock turnover, we assume that only H. contortus mono-infection occurred on both farms. This opinion is also supported by molecular data. The most striking result of our study was the finding which indicates that the discriminant function is not able to accurately identify Haemonchus males at the species level.
I. Langrová, I. Jankovská, J. Vadlejch, M. Libra, A. Lytvynets and K. Makovcová
The present work describing both laboratory and field experiments was performed to assess the effects of desiccation and UV radiation on the development and survival of free-living stages of equine cyathostomins.
Cyathostomin larvae in horse faeces did not develop to the infective stage when faecal humidity levels dropped below 23 %, nonetheless solitary preinfective larvae were still recovered after 151 days (humidity 19.5 %). The development to infective stage after remoistening occurred for the last time after 54 days following desiccation.
Preinfective stages are susceptible to the effects of the direct desiccation stage. The preinfective larvae were rapidly killed within one minute, the cyathostomin eggs within 5 hours. The numerous normal mobile infective larvae were encountered after 35 days of the desiccated period. The preinfective stage of cyathostomins also showed very little tolerance to direct sun radiation: most eggs were killed by the exposure within 3 hours and the preinfective larvae within 1 hour. The survival of infective larvae was, on the other hand, unaffected by sun radiation after 7 days (P < 0.05). However, desiccated infective larvae were then found to be susceptible to UV radiation, resulting in total mortalities after 5 days.
I. Jankovska, V. Bejcek, I. Langrova, P. Válek, J. Vadlejch and Z. Čadková
According to the newest data (2010), the state of the black grouse is in decline in the Czech Republic. One of the reasons for this decline is the parasitic infection. The examination of 170 faecal specimens disclosed 6 species of parasites. Helminth eggs were found in 50 % of the examined faecal specimens. The following eggs were found: cestode Hymenolepis spp. (28 %), with the highest prevalence (84 %) and mean intensity (1076 EPG) in spring; nematodes Trichostrongylus tenuis (24 %), and Ascaridia compar (3 %) with a mean intensity of 11 and 12 EPG, respectively. Coccidia infections were present in 1 % of faecal specimens only in spring, with an intensity of 35 OPG. However, in the following year, Eimeria lyruri was the most abundant parasite in the faecal specimens. During the second year of our research, the prevalence of E. lyruri was 28 %; the highest prevalence (67 %) was in summer with an intensity of up to 9433 OPG.
D. Lukešová, I. Langrová, J. Vadlejch, I. Jankovská, J. Hlava, P. Válek and Z. Čadková
During December 2007 and November–April 2008/2009, 128 gastrointestinal tracts and 1680 faecal samples of hares from different parts of the Czech Republic were examined. Evaluation of the faeces samples indicated that the samples could have been infected with any one of the following parasites: Eimeria spp., Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Trichuris leporis, Graphidium strigosum, Strongyloides sp., Protostrongylus spp. and Anoplocephalidae tape-worms. Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was the most common nematode (75.8 %). 39.8 % of the animals were infected with Trichuris leporis. Only four hares were in-fected with Graphidium strigosum. Eimeria spp. was the most commonly occurring parasite (90.5 %). The follow-ing species were found: Eimeria coquelinae, E. cabareti, E. leporis, E. babatica, E. europea, E. pierrecouderti, E. macrosculpta, E. orbiculata and E. stefanski. Eimeria coquelinae was the most prevalent species (68.4 %). Eimeria cabareti and E. leporis were the next most frequently found species (64.5 % and 57.8 %, respectively).
I. Jankovská, D. Lukešová, J. Száková, I. Langrová, J. Vadlejch, Z. Čadková, P. Válek, M. Petrtýl and M. Kudrnáčová
Concentrations of various essential and toxic elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Cd) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in the sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and in different tissues of its host Ovis aries. The element concentrations of the cestode parasites were compared to different organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep that were exposed to experimental amounts of Cd (0.2 g of CdCl2 added to 10 ml of distilled water and administered orally to the sheep every day for a period of 1 week). All sheep were randomly divided into four groups; the first group (Cd) contained uninfected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group C) were uninfected and unexposed to Cd; the second group (TCd) contained infected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group CT) contained infected, unexposed sheep. The experimental Cd exposure resulted in significantly higher Mn concentrations in sheep tapeworms (10.0 mg/kg) than in sheep muscle (0.6 mg/kg) and kidney (0.8 mg/kg). The experimental Cd exposure also significantly decreased the Cu concentrations in sheep liver and muscle. Moreover Cd exposure decreased the Fe concentrations in sheep kidney but caused it to increase in sheep liver and muscle. Zinc concentrations showed no differences between groups (Cd, TCd, C, T) in any monitored sheep tissues. The article also discuss the effect of tapeworm infection on a significant decrease of Fe in sheep muscle, liver and kidneys, as well as a decrease in Cu levels of the muscles and liver. This mineral imbalance may contribute to various health problems such as osteoporosis, metabolic processes disorder, antioxidant (SOD) dysfunction etc.
Š. Scháňková, M. Maršálek, P. Wagnerová, I. Langrová, L. Starostová, R. Stupka, J. Navrátil, A. Brožová, M. Kudrnáčová, I. Jankovská, J. Vadlejch and Z. Čadková
Nine ponies were experimentally infected with third stage cyathostome larvae. These animals were examined post-mortem for small strongyle infections from October 2011 to January 2012. Seventeen species of the following Cyathostominae genera were identified: Coronocyclus, Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus, Cylicostephanus, Gyalocephalus and Petrovinema. Of the 17 species of Cyathostominae recovered, Cyathostomum catinatum, Cyathostomum alveatum and Cylicocyclus nassatus were the most prevalent (100 %). From the entire population of Cyathostominae, 65.6 % were located in the caecum and only 34.4 % in the colon. Only 1,736 (24,6 %) females and 5,329 (75,4 %) males were observed. There was a significant difference between the number of males and females in the genus Cyathostomum, Cylicocyclus and Gyalocephalus.