Search Results

1 - 10 of 11 items :

  • Author: J. Vadlejch x
  • Life Sciences x
Clear All Modify Search
Enzymatic and protein differences between infective larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis conditioned or not conditioned to hypobiosis

Abstract

The differences in protein and enzymatic profiles of infective larvae (L3) of Trichostrongylus colubriformis, both induced and non-induced to hypobiosis, have been evaluated by means of SDS-PAGE and densitometric analysis as well as by semiquantitative micromethod API-ZYM (Bio-Mérieux, France). Quantitative differences were identified in protein levels between the induced and non-induced larvae, where the amount of two polypeptides (200–220 kDa) decreased in range 32.3–35.4 % and the amount of six polypeptides (20–28 kDa) increased in range 20.0–27.0 % in the samples of induced larvae. In contrast to non-induced larvae, on gelatin-substrate gel in L3 in vitro released (IVR) proteases from larvae conditioned to hypobiosis, zones of proteolysis were observed between 21 and 34 kDa.

Open access
Drinking water ivermectin treatment for eradication of pinworm infections from laboratory rat colonies

Abstract

The effects of ivermectin were studied in laboratory rats naturally infected with the pinworm Syphacia muris. Ivermectin was administered over four 5-days periods in drinking water; the ivermectin dose was 2.5 mg/kg of body weight per day. All the rats were weighed every five days and their ova production was monitored by a cellophane — tape test. Every fifth day six males and six females from the experimental group were euthanized and examined for adult pinworms and larvae. The rats’ health condition, behaviour and consumption of food and water were monitored every day. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of orally administered ivermectin as a treatment against adult pinworms and their larvae in laboratory rat colonies.

Open access
Comparative morphological and molecular identification of Haemonchus species in sheep

Abstract

A combined approach in the determination of Haemonchus nematodes from sheep was applied in this trial. Using selected morphological characters 90.2 % females and 84.2 % males of Haemonchus contortus and 9.8 % females and 15.8 % males of Haemonchus placei were identified. Although cluster analysis based on morphological identification clearly separated two Haemonchus species, H. contortus was exclusively detected in all specimens using restriction cleavage of the ITS-2 region with FspBI endonuclease as well as through the sequencing analysis. Because sheep from both farms have never had contact with other ruminants, and the farmers apply only closed flock turnover, we assume that only H. contortus mono-infection occurred on both farms. This opinion is also supported by molecular data. The most striking result of our study was the finding which indicates that the discriminant function is not able to accurately identify Haemonchus males at the species level.

Open access
Eimeriosis Seasonal Dynamics Patterns at an Organic Sheep Farm in the Czech Republic

Abstract

This epidemiological study monitored the occurrence of the coccidia genus Eimeria and their species composition over a oneyear period at an organic sheep farm in the Czech Republic. Individual faecal samples were collected from thirty lambs and thirty ewes once a month throughout the whole survey. As a result, 348 and 333 samples from ewes and lambs respectively were evaluated using the faecal flotation technique. The overall prevalence of eimeriosis was 75.7% and 54.0% for lambs and ewes respectively. Four Eimeria species (E. ovinoidalis, E. crandallis/weybridgensis, E. parva, and E. intricata) were identified in both, lambs and ewes, during this survey. The most prevalent species was E. ovinoidalis, with an overall prevalence of 84% in ewes and 85% in lambs, followed by E. parva and E. crandallis/weybridgensis. The oocysts faecal output was seasonal. The highest oocysts per gram levels were detected in February (139 000) and May (250 000) in ewes and in February (1 949 900), March (326 000), and May (187 700) in lambs. The intensity of Eimeria infection differed significantly (P < 0.0001) between ewes and lambs during the monitored period.

Open access
Comparison of Lungworm Infection in a Herd of Young and Dairy Goats at an Organic Farm

Abstract

The prevalence and intensity of infection of the lungworm Muellerius capillaris in dairy and young goats were evaluated at one organic farm in the Czech Republic. A total of 605 faecal samples were collected from rectum of thirty selected dairy and thirty young goats; each individual was examined monthly throughout a year. Data were statistically evaluated to verify the existence of differences in values of larvae count per gram (LPG) in dairy and young goats. Further, dairy goats were divided into three groups depending on the number of lactations and the differences in LPG values between groups were statistically evaluated. The species M. capillaris was the only lung parasite identified during our study with an overall prevalence 87.2 % and 93.1 % for young goats and dairy goats, respectively. The difference in the larvae count between young and dairy goats was not statistically significant. The comparison of larvae counts in goat groups depending on the number of lactation showed significant differences between dairy goats on the first and second lactation and between goats on the second and third lactation (P < 0.05) contrary to larvae count between goats on the first and third lactation.

Open access
Screening of Model Animals for Experimental Infection with Equine Cyathostomes

Abstract

Various laboratory animals – mice (Mus musculus) of six strains, rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus), rats (Rattus norvegicus), and Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) were experimentally infected with larvae of small strongyles (Cyathostominae), obtained from horse faeces and cultured to the infective larval stage L3. The attempt to transfer cyathostome larvae was aimed at developing a model for the investigation of different aspects of the life cycle and biology of these nematodes in the laboratory. Some animals were immunized (hydrocortisone) for the duration of the study. The laboratory animals were orally infected with 2–10 thousand sheathed or ex-sheathed L3 larvae of mixed cyathostome species. All attempts to inoculate any animal failed; there was no larval development in the experimental rodents and it can be stated that none of the investigated animals may serve as a suitable model host for horse nematodes of the subfamily Cyathostominae.

Open access
The influence of desiccation and UV radiation on the development and survival of free-living stages of cyathostomins under field and laboratory conditions

Abstract

The present work describing both laboratory and field experiments was performed to assess the effects of desiccation and UV radiation on the development and survival of free-living stages of equine cyathostomins.

Cyathostomin larvae in horse faeces did not develop to the infective stage when faecal humidity levels dropped below 23 %, nonetheless solitary preinfective larvae were still recovered after 151 days (humidity 19.5 %). The development to infective stage after remoistening occurred for the last time after 54 days following desiccation.

Preinfective stages are susceptible to the effects of the direct desiccation stage. The preinfective larvae were rapidly killed within one minute, the cyathostomin eggs within 5 hours. The numerous normal mobile infective larvae were encountered after 35 days of the desiccated period. The preinfective stage of cyathostomins also showed very little tolerance to direct sun radiation: most eggs were killed by the exposure within 3 hours and the preinfective larvae within 1 hour. The survival of infective larvae was, on the other hand, unaffected by sun radiation after 7 days (P < 0.05). However, desiccated infective larvae were then found to be susceptible to UV radiation, resulting in total mortalities after 5 days.

Open access
Black grouse in Czech Republic and its parasites

Abstract

According to the newest data (2010), the state of the black grouse is in decline in the Czech Republic. One of the reasons for this decline is the parasitic infection. The examination of 170 faecal specimens disclosed 6 species of parasites. Helminth eggs were found in 50 % of the examined faecal specimens. The following eggs were found: cestode Hymenolepis spp. (28 %), with the highest prevalence (84 %) and mean intensity (1076 EPG) in spring; nematodes Trichostrongylus tenuis (24 %), and Ascaridia compar (3 %) with a mean intensity of 11 and 12 EPG, respectively. Coccidia infections were present in 1 % of faecal specimens only in spring, with an intensity of 35 OPG. However, in the following year, Eimeria lyruri was the most abundant parasite in the faecal specimens. During the second year of our research, the prevalence of E. lyruri was 28 %; the highest prevalence (67 %) was in summer with an intensity of up to 9433 OPG.

Open access
Endoparasites in European hares (Lepus europaeus) under gamekeeping conditions in the Czech Republic

Abstract

During December 2007 and November–April 2008/2009, 128 gastrointestinal tracts and 1680 faecal samples of hares from different parts of the Czech Republic were examined. Evaluation of the faeces samples indicated that the samples could have been infected with any one of the following parasites: Eimeria spp., Trichostrongylus retortaeformis, Trichuris leporis, Graphidium strigosum, Strongyloides sp., Protostrongylus spp. and Anoplocephalidae tape-worms. Trichostrongylus retortaeformis was the most common nematode (75.8 %). 39.8 % of the animals were infected with Trichuris leporis. Only four hares were in-fected with Graphidium strigosum. Eimeria spp. was the most commonly occurring parasite (90.5 %). The follow-ing species were found: Eimeria coquelinae, E. cabareti, E. leporis, E. babatica, E. europea, E. pierrecouderti, E. macrosculpta, E. orbiculata and E. stefanski. Eimeria coquelinae was the most prevalent species (68.4 %). Eimeria cabareti and E. leporis were the next most frequently found species (64.5 % and 57.8 %, respectively).

Open access
Competition for minerals (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu) and Cd between sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and its definitive host sheep (Ovis aries)

Abstract

Concentrations of various essential and toxic elements (Zn, Mn, Fe, Cu and Cd) were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) in the sheep tapeworm (Moniezia expansa) and in different tissues of its host Ovis aries. The element concentrations of the cestode parasites were compared to different organs (liver, kidney, and muscle) of sheep that were exposed to experimental amounts of Cd (0.2 g of CdCl2 added to 10 ml of distilled water and administered orally to the sheep every day for a period of 1 week). All sheep were randomly divided into four groups; the first group (Cd) contained uninfected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group C) were uninfected and unexposed to Cd; the second group (TCd) contained infected, Cd exposed sheep, and its control (group CT) contained infected, unexposed sheep. The experimental Cd exposure resulted in significantly higher Mn concentrations in sheep tapeworms (10.0 mg/kg) than in sheep muscle (0.6 mg/kg) and kidney (0.8 mg/kg). The experimental Cd exposure also significantly decreased the Cu concentrations in sheep liver and muscle. Moreover Cd exposure decreased the Fe concentrations in sheep kidney but caused it to increase in sheep liver and muscle. Zinc concentrations showed no differences between groups (Cd, TCd, C, T) in any monitored sheep tissues. The article also discuss the effect of tapeworm infection on a significant decrease of Fe in sheep muscle, liver and kidneys, as well as a decrease in Cu levels of the muscles and liver. This mineral imbalance may contribute to various health problems such as osteoporosis, metabolic processes disorder, antioxidant (SOD) dysfunction etc.

Open access