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J. Górka

Abstract

The article concerns the issue of weldability of S700MC steel, treated thermo-mechanically, with high yield point. The weakest area of welded joints of this steel is a high - temperature coarse heat affected zone (HAZ) in which due to the nucleation effect of the dissolved phases, strengthening the matrix and their subsequent uncontrolled separation precipitation in the form of finely disperse and rapid decrease impact strength is observed. Performed arc welding tests here have shown that in order to ensure high quality of welded joints, it is necessary to limit the welding linear heat input. During the welding process of S700MC steel, it is not recommended to use pre heating before the welding process and heat treatment after welding, and the number of repairs should be kept to a minimum, because it leads to a reduction of strength and plastic properties in the HAZ area, as a result of aging processes, dissolution of strengthening phases in the matrix and their subsequent uncontrolled precipitation during cooling.

Open access

J. Górka

Abstract

This study presents tests concerned with welding thermal process-induced precipitation processes taking place in 10 mm thick steel S700MC subjected to the Thermo-Mechanical Control Process (TMCP) with accelerated cooling. The thermomechanical processing of steel S700MC leads to its refinement, structural defects and solutioning with hardening constituents. Tests of thin foils performed using a transmission electron microscope revealed that the hardening of steel S700MC was primarily caused by dispersive (Ti,Nb)(C,N) precipitates (being between several and less than twenty nanometers in size). In arc welding, depending on a welding method and linear energy, an increase in the base material in the weld is accompanied by the increased concentration of hardening microagents in the weld. The longer the time when the base material remains in the liquid state, the greater the amount of microagents dissolved in the matrix. During cooling, such microagents can precipitate again or remain in the solution. An increase in welding linear energy is accompanied by an increase in the content of hardening phases dissolved in the matrix and, during cooling, by their another uncontrolled precipitation in the form of numerous fine-dispersive (Ti,Nb)(C,N) precipitates of several nm in size, leading to a dislocation density increase triggered by type 2 internal stresses.

Open access

J. Górka, A. Czupryński and M. Adamiak

Abstract

The present paper is the result of the investigations of the properties and structure of nanocrystalline layers deposited from iron-based nanoalloy on steel S355N substrate by manual metal arc welding method (MMA). In the process of welding a 100 A current intensity was used with desiccation preheating at 80°C while maintaining the interpass temperature at range of 200°C. The resultant deposit welds were subjected to macro and microscopic metallographic examination, X-ray phase analyses and crystallite size was analyzed by X-ray diffractometry (XRD), additionally EDX chemical composition analysis of precipitates during scanning electron microscopy was performed. Working properties of the obtained nanocrystalline deposit welds were evaluated based on hardness and metal-to-mineral abrasive wear. The results of the deposit welds working properties measurements were compared with the properties of wear resistant steel HARDOX 400 type used as the reference material.

Open access

D. Janicki, J. Górka, W. Kwaśny, K. Gołombek, M. Kondracki and M. Żuk

Abstract

Metal matrix composite (MMC) surface layers reinforced by WC were fabricated on armor steel ARMOX 500T plates via a laser surface alloying process. The microstructure of the layers was assessed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction.

The surface layers having the WC fraction up to 71 vol% and an average hardness of 1300 HV were produced. The thickness of these layers was up to 650 μm. The addition of a titanium powder in the molten pool increased the wettability of WC particles by the liquid metal in the molten pool increasing the WC fraction. Additionally, the presence of titanium resulted in the precipitation of the (Ti,W)C phase, which significantly reduced the fraction of W-rich complex carbides and improved a structural integrity of the layers.

Open access

M. Adamiak, B. Tomiczek, J. Górka and A. Czupryński

Abstract

The introduction of new reinforcing materials continues to be investigated to improve the final behaviour of AMCs as well as to avoid some drawbacks of using ceramics as reinforcement. The present work investigates the structure, properties and ability of joining aluminium EN-AW 6061 matrix composite materials reinforced with Ti3Al particles by resistance butt welding as well as composite materials produced by mechanical milling, powder metallurgy and hot extrusion techniques. Mechanically milled and extruded composites show finer and better distribution of reinforcement particles, which leads to better mechanical properties of the obtained products. Finer microstructure improves mechanical properties of obtained composites. The hardness increases twice in the case of mechanically milled composites also, a higher reinforcement content results in higher particle dispersion hardening, for 15 wt.% of intermetallics reinforcement concentration composites reach about 400 MPa UTS. Investigation results of joints show that best hardness and tensile properties of joints can be achieved by altering soft conditions of butt welding process e.g. current flow time 1.2 s and current 1400 A. To improve mechanical properties of butt welding joints age hardening techniques can also be used.

Open access

M. Adamiak, B. Wyględacz, A. Czupryński and J. Górka

Abstract

In this article results of studies on cracks formation susceptibility in braze-welded joints of thin aluminum sheets and double-sided zinc galvanized steel sheets for car body parts made by laser brazing with high power diode laser ROFIN DL 020 and CMT MIG-brazing, with filler material in form of powder and wire accordingly, were presented. Optimal welding parameters were determined by visual acceptance criteria. On joints made with optimal parameters further examinations were carried. Results of macro- and microscopic metallographic examinations, structural roentgenography, EDS microanalysis and hardness tests were presented. Causes of brittle intermetallic Fe-Al phases formation in Al-matrix filler metal in dissimilar aluminum – zinc plated carbon steel joints were pointed.

Open access

A. Czupryński, J. Górka, M. Adamiak and B. Tomiczek

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the properties of flame sprayed ceramic coatings using oxide ceramic materials coating of a powdered aluminium oxide (Al2O3) matrix with 3% titanium oxide (TiO2) applied to unalloyed S235JR grade structural steel. A primer consisting of a metallic Ni-Al-Mo based powder has been applied to plates with dimensions of 5×200×300 mm and front surfaces of Ø40×50 mm cylinders. Flame spraying of primer coating was made using a RotoTec 80 torch, and an external coating was made with a CastoDyn DS 8000 torch. Evaluation of the coating properties was conducted using metallographic testing, phase composition research, measurement of microhardness, substrate coating adhesion (acc. to EN 582:1996 standard), erosion wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G76-95 standard), and abrasive wear resistance (acc. to ASTM G65 standard) and thermal impact. The testing performed has demonstrated that flame spraying with 97% Al2O3 powder containing 3% TiO2 performed in a range of parameters allows for obtaining high-quality ceramic coatings with thickness up to ca. 500 µm on a steel base. Spray coating possesses a structure consisting mainly of aluminium oxide and a small amount of NiAl10O16 and NiAl32O49 phases. The bonding primer coat sprayed with the Ni-Al-Mo powder to the steel substrate and external coating sprayed with the 97% Al2O3 powder with 3% TiO2 addition demonstrates mechanical bonding characteristics. The coating is characterized by a high adhesion to the base amounting to 6.5 MPa. Average hardness of the external coating is ca. 780 HV. The obtained coatings are characterized by high erosion and abrasive wear resistance and the resistance to effects of cyclic thermal shock.