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Open access

Katarína Ondreičková and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Field trials with the genetic modified (GM) maize stacked hybrid NK603 × MON810 performed in two different locations in the Czech Republic were used for evaluation of genetic diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities using the terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism. Statistically significant differences in the number of terminal restriction fragments (i.e. bacterial richness) between GM and non-GM maize were not detected. Diversity indices (Gini-Simpson and Shannon’s) revealed higher bacterial diversity in non-GM sample from location Ivanovice na Hané and in the GM maize from location Probluz, but statistical significant differences between GM and non-GM samples were not detected. Additionally, using principal component analysis and cluster analysis, no substantial variation in the composition of bacterial communities between GM and conventional maize were observed but the differences among individual collection sites were recorded.

Open access

Veronika Masárová, Daniel Mihálik and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Repetitive tandem sequences were retrieved within nucleotide sequences of opium poppy (Papaver somniferum L.) genomic DNA available in the GenBank® database. Altogether 538 different microsatellites with the desired length characteristics of tandem repeats have been identified within 450 sequences of opium poppy DNA available in the database. The most frequented were mononucleotide repeats (246); nevertheless, 44 dinucleotide, 148 trinucleotide, 62 tetranucleotide, 28 pentanucleotide and 5 hexanucleotide tandem repeats have also been found. The most abundant were trinucleotide motifs (27.50%), and the most abundant motifs within each group of tandem repeats were TA/AT, TTC/GAA, GGTT/AACC and TTTTA/ TAAAA. Five hexanucleotide repeats contained four different motifs.

Open access

Martina Hudcovicová, Erika Korbelová, Svetlana Šliková, Lenka Klčová, Daniel Mihálik and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Molecular selection among newly created tomato and pepper lines was applied for identification of lines possessing DNA markers linked with the resistant loci against tobamoviruses ToMV, TMV, PaMMV, and PMMoV. Only four tomato lines among 184 had DNA marker linked with the resistant allele Tm-2 conferring homozygosity at this locus. Resistance of these four lines was tested and confirmed also by virological testing by inoculation with TMV strain 0. Simultaneously tested lines heterozygous at this locus expressed full or unbalanced resistance. Fifty-eight out of 62 tested pepper lines had only marker linked to susceptible allele of the locus L. Three lines derived from tobamovirus resistant pepper cultivars Brill and Brilliant expressed marker linked to resistant allele L3, and only one line derived from resistant cultivar Hurricane possessed both markers. Four selected pepper lines declared resistance also after artificial inoculation with the TMV P0 pathotype. Molecular selection, both in tomato and pepper breeding lines, may be useful in breeding programs directed to tobamovirus resistance.

Open access

Michaela Piliarová, Katarína Ondreičková, Martina Hudcovicová, Daniel Mihálik and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi living in the soil closely collaborate with plants in their root zone and play very important role in their evolution. Their symbiosis stimulates plant growth and resistance to different environmental stresses. Plant root system, extended by mycelium of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, has better capability to reach the water and dissolved nutrients from a much larger volume of soil. This could solve the problem of imminent depletion of phosphate stock, affect plant fertilisation, and contribute to sustainable production of foods, feeds, biofuel, and raw materials. Expanded plant root systems reduce erosion of soil, improve soil quality, and extend the diversity of soil microflora. On the other hand, symbiosis with plants affects species diversity of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and increased plant diversity supports diversity of fungi. This review summarizes the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in relation to beneficial potential of their symbiosis with plants, and their function in the ecosystem.

Open access

Martina Hudcovicová, Katarína Ondreičková, Pavol Hauptvogel and Ján Kraic

Abstract

A set of 33 wheat EST-SSR markers was designed and 18 from them were polymorphic and used for assessment of genetic diversity within 36 introduced genotypes of hexaploid bread wheat. Altogether 105 alleles were detected, in average 3.18 alleles per locus. Maximum number of alleles 14 was detected at the locus TDI389708. Five the most polymorphic markers were used for the evaluation and comparison of genetic variation within 46 domestic (Slovak) wheat genotypes and 36 introduced (foreign) wheat genotypes. The number of alleles per used primer pair within domestic genotypes varied from 7 to 19, with an average of 13.2 alleles, an average gene diversity 0.846 and PIC 0.980 per locus. The number of alleles per primer within introduced genotypes varied from 7 to 14, with an average of 10.8 alleles, an average gene diversity 0.780 and PIC 0.958 per locus. The level of polymorphism in EST- SSRs was sufficient for discrimination between genotypes and variation within domestic genotypes was slightly higher than in introduced genotypes. Variation revealed by 5 selected EST-SSR markers clustered genotypes according to origin. Domestic and introduced wheats were grouped distinctly into two separate groups.

Open access

Soňa Gavurníková, Michaela Havrlentová, Ľubomír Mendel, Iveta Čičová, Magdaléna Bieliková and Ján Kraic

Parameters of Wheat Flour, Dough, and Bread Fortified by Buckwheat and Millet Flours

The composite flours were created from basic wheat flour and from buckwheat and millet flours used as additives in the weight ratio of 5-30%. Basic technological parameters of flours (ash content, wet gluten, gluten swelling, sedimentation index, falling number), rheological properties of dough, and sensory parameters of baked bread loaves (weight, specific volume, aroma, taste, structure) were studied. Additives influenced all traits of flours, doughs, and baked breads. From the technological and sensory points of view, baked breads with the addition of buckwheat were accepted up to the addition of 20% and breads with millet up to 5% (even though taste and flavour were accepted up to 15% addition).

Open access

Katarína Hrčková, Peter Mihalčík, Štefan Žák, Roman Hašana, Katarína Ondreičková and Ján Kraic

Abstract

The parameters determining the agronomic and economic performance of genetically modified maize hybrid MON 89034 × NK603 and conventional hybrids were compared under conditions that eliminated the herbicide tolerance in GM hybrid as well as the use of insecticides in conventional hybrids. The GM hybrid confirmed ability to protect itself against the European corn borer and its average grain yield was higher by 6.36-14.42% (i.e. 0.82-1.86 t/ha) in comparison with conventional hybrids. The year of cultivation statistically significant influenced agronomic parameters and the financial income of maize production. The maize genotype did not statistically significantly affected any evaluated parameter. The final income was statistically significant (P < 0.05) negatively influenced by all observed agronomic parameters with the exception of the seed price. The price of maize grains on the market was the only one factor that statistically significant (P < 0.05) influenced financial income of the maize production.

Open access

Katarína Ondreičková, Andrej Ficek, Daniel Mihálik, Marcela Gubišová, Martina Hudcovicová, Hana Drahovská and Ján Kraic

Abstract

The terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism munities from different collecting places was evaluated was used to determine the bacterial diversity in rhizo- by principal component analysis. Results showed that sphere of maize (Zea mays L.) collected from four sites the most different bacterial community originated from of experimental field plot in two dates of the vegetation marginal part of the experimental field plot collected in season (July and September). The 16S rRNA gene was September was caused probably by combination of the amplified from metagenomic DNA using universal eubac- marginal effect and drought before sampling date in Sep- terial primers and PCR products were digested separately tember. Other rhizosphere samples showed from moderate with three restriction enzymes. Significant differences in to small differences in the structure of the bacterial com- the number of terminal restriction fragments among rhi- munity. Nevertheless, significant differences among all zosphere samples and between sampling dates were not collected bacterial communities were not observed. detected (P < 0.05). Variation within the bacterial communities from different collecting places was evaluated by principal component analysis. Results showed that the most different bacterial community originated from marginal part of the experimental field plot collected in September was caused probably by combination of the marginal effect and drought before sampling date in September. Other rhizosphere samples showed from moderate to small differences in the structure of the bacterial community. Nevertheless, significant differences among all collected bacterial communities were not observed.