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Open access

Martin Sák, Ivana Dokupilová, Daniel Mihálik, Jana Lakatošová, Marcela Gubišová and Ján Kraic

Abstract

The in vitro cell cultures of Vitis vinifera L. cv. St. Laurent were treated with two elicitors - synthetic methyl jasmonate and natural, prepared from grapevine plant infected with the Phaeomoniella chlamydospora, the agent causing the Esca disease of grapevine. Efficiency of phenolic compounds production after elicitation of cell culture was analysed immediately after treatment (15 min, 30 min, 60 min) and later (after 24, 48, and 72 hours). The cell growth and content of phenolic compounds (+)-catechin, (-)-epicatechin, p-coumaric acid, syringaldehyde, rutin, vanillic acid, and trans-resveratrol were analysed in cultivated cells as well as in cultivation medium. Pch-treatment increased production of total polyphenols the most significantly 15 min after the elicitation and in optimal time was 2.86 times higher than in nonelicited culture and 1.44 times higher than in MeJa induced cell culture.

Open access

Michaela Havrlentová, Ľubomíra Deáková, Ján Kraic and Alžbeta Žofajová

Abstract

Plants have evolved to live in environments where they are often exposed to different stress factors. Being sessile, they have developed specific mechanisms that allow them to detect precisely environmental changes and respond to complex conditions, minimizing damage while conserving valuable resources for growth and reproduction. The cell wall polysaccharide β-D-glucan observed in some species of Poales can determine responses to various environmental factors in specific plant developmental stages. It is located in the outer epidermal layer, at the place of stress attack and therefore its metabolism could relate to response of plant to environmental factors within moderate, physiological range. Putative protective role of β-D-glucan during heat stress was indicated through naked oats with higher content of β-D-glucan. It appeared that oats with higher β-D-glucan content are better adapted to stress conditions. The presented article discusses the β-D-glucan as a possible protective mechanism in oat during (heat) stress conditions.

Open access

Maria Maliarova, Tibor Maliar, Jana Girmanova, Jozef Lehotay and Jan Kraic

Abstract

The Humulus lupulus L. is well known as necessary raw material for beer production. The main structural classes of chemical compounds identified from hop cones include terpenes, bitter acids, prenylated chalcones, and flavonol glycosides. They were subjects of presented work. The content of quercetin was found in the range 490 - 1092 μg/g and that of kaempferol from 218 to 568 μg/g of the dry hop cones. The content of isorhamnetin was very low in all varieties. From biological activities in vitro point of view, relative high level of inhibition activity was observed for six hop genotypes - Zlatan, Lučan, and the Oswald's clones 31, 70, 71, 72, 114 on both enzymes thrombin and urokinase, but without correlation to analyzed flavonols content. In spite of this, antioxidant activity, measured by both the BCLM and HPE methods, was found high and seem to be in correlation with content of analyzed flavonols. Particularly the Oswald's clone 114 expressed very potent biological activities. In general, obtained results indicate that hop cones are valuable material also for other application others than beer production.

Open access

Michaela Havrlentová, Ivana Pšenáková, Alžbeta Žofajová, Ľubomír Rückschloss and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Improving the micronutrients in food has become an important field of the Second Green Revolution. In recent years, minor bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, pigments and carotenoids, have attracted more and more interest from both researchers and food manufactures as health-promoting and disease-preventing effects in both in vitro and in vivo studies. One of plant pigments, wheat anthocyanins as plant phenolics are increasingly attractive as natural compounds positively affecting consumer´s health and condition moreover wheat is staple food source consumed usually daily. For a purple, blue, or red colour of wheat seed are responsible glycosylated cyanidins, delphinidins, malvinidins, pelargonidins, petunidins, and peonidins located in aleurone layer or pericarp, respectively. Other than white seed colour is not natural for common hexaploid wheat but this trait can be introduced from donors by aimed breeding programs. The way of wheat anthocyanins to provide positive effects for consumer´s physiology is limited due to their specific occurrence in seed parts usually removed during grain milling practice and lower stability during processing to foods

Open access

Monika Bardáčová, Yevheniia Konotop, Zuzana Gregorová, Miroslav Horník, Jana Moravčíková, Ján Kraic and Ildikó Matušíková

Abstract

Cadmium is a serious environmental pollutant and its uptake by plant represents a serious health risk. Uptake, accumulation as well as sensitivity of soybean plants to metals have been shown to vary with genotype, while the dynamics of this uptake has rarely been studied. Here we studied the uptake and accumulation of Cd2+ ions in different parts of soybean plants of four cultivars Moravians, Gallec, Kent and Cardiff. The plants at early developmental stage were immersed in Hoagland nutrient solution in the presence or absence of 50 mg.L−1 and the isotope of 109Cd2+ to monitor its accumulation continuously at 24 h intervals for 10 days. Our results showed that the uptake rate varied among the cultivars, being the highest in roots of the cv. Moravians and the lowest in the cv. Gallec. We also observed a non-even distribution of radioactivity within the entire plants of individual cultivars. The most of Cd2+ isotope was translocated into primary leaves and leaves in the cvs. Kent and Moravians; on the contrary, relatively less in the cvs. Cardiff and Gallec. The results were fitted with genetic potential, growth as well as defense parameters such as proline accumulation. Combining uptake dynamics and biochemical data are indicative for different tolerance strategies of soybeans.

Open access

Jana Moravčíková, Ildikó Matušíková, Peter Nemeček, Alžbeta Blehová, Želmíra Balážová, Zdenka Gálová, Patrik Mészáros and Ján Kraic

Abstract

Acceptance of genetically modified plants is restricted in EU by legislation, while the attitude of public is not favourable as well. Surveys show that knowledge about GM plants is getting increased. Newly developed strategies on GM safety for environment can be a crucial aspect for the (partial) acceptance in future. GM trees as non-edible plants might appear as more admissible, however, are relatively rarely discussed. We performed a comparative survey on knowledge and perception of GM forest trees among students at four Slovak universities. We also compared their responses between as well as with the outcome of similar cross-country survey in frames of the COST Action FP0905. The results point to very similar attitude of Slovak students when compared with students from other countries, no significant difference between responses of males and females, but also influence of age as well as orientation of their study (natural sciences vs. economy) on view of GM tree safety and placing on the market.

Open access

Monika Bardáčová, Marína Maglovski, Zuzana Gregorová, Yevheniia Konotop, Miroslav Horník, Jana Moravčíková, Ján Kraic, Daniel Mihálik and Ildikó Matušíková

Abstract

Cell walls represent the first barrier that can prevent the entrance of toxic heavy metals into plants. The composition and the flexibility of the cell wall are regulated by different enzymes. The ß-1,3-glucanases control the degradation of the polysaccharide callose as a flexible regulation mechanism of cell wall permeability and/or its ability to bind metals under stress conditions. The profile and activity of ß-1,3-glucanases in the presence of heavy metals, however, has rarely been studied. Here we studied these enzymes in four soybean varieties (Glycine max) grown in the presence of cadmium ions. These analyses revealed three acidic and one basic enzyme isoforms in each soybean variety, but only two of the acidic isoforms in the variety Moravians were substantially responsive to the presence of Cd2+. Since the responses of certain glucanases were detected mainly in the varieties sensitive to metal and accumulating high amounts of metals, we assume their role in the defense rather than strategic metal sequestration.

Open access

Jana Sojková, Iwona Žur, Zuzana Gregorová, Mária Zimová, Ildikó Matušíková, Daniel Mihálik, Ján Kraic and Jana Moravčíková

Abstract

This work is aimed to evaluate in vitro regeneration potential of seven commercial soybean varieties Bohemians, Cardiff, Gallec, Merlin, Moravians, Naya and Silensia (Glycine max L.) cultivated in Central Europe. Our results showed the half-seeds could be effectively used as an explant source for all tested cultivars. The regeneration was initiated on the media containing growth regulators 1.67 mg.l-1 BAP and 0.25 mg.l-1 GA3. Within the first five days culture, green chlorophyll-containing explants were observed with frequency from 18.3% to 55.9%. Two weeks later, the explants responded by production of calli with the efficiency up to 83.0%. First shoots appeared after 2–3 weeks of subculture on the media. The soybean regeneration showed to be genotype-dependent with variable efficiencies from 5.7% (cv. Naya) to 37.7% (cv. Gallec). The cultivars Cardiff, Merlin and Gallec appear to be the most promising candidates for further biotechnological use. Application of antioxidants such as L-cysteine, dithiothreitol and sodium thiosulfate does not have effect on the explant regeneration for the first five days.