Search Results

You are looking at 1 - 3 of 3 items for :

  • Author: Izabela Rutkowska x
  • Public Health x
Clear All Modify Search
Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Abstract

Introduction. The increased level in competition and growing interest in sports for the disabled means that the training process of these people is the subject of studies and analysis. The main objective of this study was to identify the structure of the training loads in athletes with visual impairments in the 800 and 1500 m runs, in relation to sports performance. Material and methods. Seven annual trainings cycles of two groups (A, n=8, B, n=5) of athletes with visual impairments (medalists and participants of the Paralympic Games, World Championships, European Championships and multiple Polish masters), engaged in the 800 and 1500 m races, from the years 1998-2000 and 2003-2008 were evaluated. To analyze and evaluate the training loads, based on training logs two methods were used: Method I - based on an analysis of training documentation developed in the Department of Theory of Sport at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. Method II - based on an assessment of the energy cost incurred for the implementation of training. Results. The analysis showed significant differences in the training process of the athletes of the two groups. The training of athletes from group A, was carried out mainly with the directed training method (61% of total load - TL) with low intensity - range 1 on a 5 point scale (74% TL), while group B - with special training method (76% TL) in second (2) range of intensity (71% TL). Conclusions. Training carried out by athletes from group B better reflects the specifications of middle distance runs, in comparison with group A, which could lead to a higher level of performance presented by the athletes of group B.

Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Ida Wiszomirska, Jolanta Marszałek, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Abstract

Introduction. In elite sport, athletes are required to maintain appropriate body posture control despite a number of destabilising factors. The functions of body posture control are monitored by the central nervous system that constantly receives information from the vestibular and somatosensory systems as well as from the visual analyser. Visual impairment may contribute to a decrease in the level of motor abilities and skills; however, it does not prevent visually impaired individuals from taking up physical activity. Therefore, this study sought to assess the static balance of visually impaired goalball players and shooters. Material and methods. The study included 37 goalball players and 20 shooters. A force platform was used to assess static balance. The study participants performed tests: standing on both feet with eyes open (BFEO) and closed (BFEC) (30 s), single left- and right-leg stance with eyes open (SLEO and SREO) as well as single left- and right-leg stance with eyes closed (SLEC and SREC). Statistical analyses were carried out using the following parameters: centre of pressure (CoP) path length [cm], CoP velocity [m/s], and the surface area of the stabilogram [cm2]. Results. No significant differences were found between goalball players and shooters in static balance levels. However, such differences were observed after taking into account the number of athletes who were capable of performing particular tests. Conclusions. The findings indirectly confirm that there is a correlation between the type of physical activity and balance levels in visually impaired individuals. Further research ought to include tests performed on an unstable surface.

Open access

Waldemar Skowroński, Witold Winnicki, Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Izabela Rutkowska and Witold Rekowski

Abstract

Introduction. Physical fitness affects motor and intellectual development. Having a wide range of motor skills makes it possible to learn about the surrounding world and expand one’s knowledge. In the case of persons with intellectual disabilities, mastering gross and fine motor skills is the core of their development and functioning in society. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between physical fitness, gross and fine motor skills, and the level of functioning in schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities. Material and methods. The study involved 62 subjects whose age ranged from 9 to 24 years. Due to the large size and homogeneity of the group, the results of 26 subjects were considered in the analysis: 12 girls and 14 boys with moderate intellectual disability. Physical disability as well as gross and fine motor skills were measured with the BOT-2, TGMD- 2, and Eurofit Special tests. The level of functioning in society was assessed with a specially designed ICF-based questionnaire. Results. The study showed that girls had better motor skills than boys; this was reflected in the participants’ level of functioning as girls displayed a higher level of functioning. Boys, despite better physical fitness, were ranked on a lower level of functioning. Conclusions. A relationship was found between gross and fine motor skills and the level of functioning, assessed with BOT-2 and TGMD-2. No relationship was found between physical fitness, assessed with Eurofit Special, and the level of functioning. Instead of using assessment tools for general fitness, one should measure specific motor skills when assessing physical and motor development in children with intellectual disabilities.