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Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Abstract

Introduction: Classification of athletes in disability sports aims to give athletes equal opportunities in competition. In most sport disciplines, athlete’s functional capabilities are taken into consideration and on this basis the athlete is classified into the appropriate sport class. The issue is relevant and it is an important direction of research undertaken in the field of disability sport. Assuming that sport results are resultants of athlete’s functional capabilities and level of training, the analysis of sports results obtained by athletes with disabilities, especially those obtained during major events, becomes the focus of research.

Material and methods: The aim of the analysis was to enable an assessment of the classification system in relation to the results obtained by swimmers in each sport class. For the analysis we used the official results in swimming in all styles at all distances, obtained during Paralympics Games in 2000-2012 by women and menwith locomotor disability. To assess the significance of differences in results between particular sport classes, the Mann–Whitney U test was used. The adopted level of significance was set at p < 0.05.

Results and conlusions: The results of the analysis indicate that the classification system for swimming differentiates competitors in terms of the results obtained. This refers mainly to men in particular sport classes, which may be an indicator of a high performance level in this sports discipline. In the case of women, no differences (in some cases) have been observed between the results obtained by athletes, especially between classes where swimmers with smaller functional deficits compete. This can serve as a reason for combining these classes, which could lead to the increase in sports performance level in women’s swimming.

Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Streszczenie

Wstęp: Pływanie jest jedną z najpopularniejszych dyscyplin sportu uprawianych przez osoby niepełnosprawne, o czym może świadczyć wzrastająca liczba uczestnikow podczas kolejnych Igrzysk Paraolimpijskich (IP). Jednym ze sposobow oceny poziomu sportowego w danej dyscyplinie jest analiza wynikow z zawodow najwyższej rangi. Stąd celem pracy było porownanie wynikow sportowych, uzyskanych przez mężczyzn z niepełnosprawnością narządu ruchu w pływaniu w danej klasie startowej (1-10) na IP w latach 2000-2012.

Materiał i metody: Analizie poddano wyniki uzyskane przez mężczyzn z niepełnosprawnością narządu ruchu w pływaniu wszystkimi stylami, na wszystkich dystansach rozgrywanych podczas IP w latach 2000-2012. Do oceny istotności rożnic pomiędzy wynikami uzyskanymi przez zawodnikow wykorzystano test U Manna Whitney’a. Przyjęto poziom istotności p<0,05.

Wyniki: Zaobserwowano istotne statystycznie rożnice w poziomie (wzrost) uzyskiwanych wynikow we wszystkich klasach startowych w każdym ze stylow na rozgrywanych dystansach podczas kolejnych IP. Na przestrzeni 8 i 12 lat niemal wszystkie rożnice były istotne statystycznie. Taki kierunek zmian był najbardziej widoczny w przypadku zawodnikow z wyższych klas startowych (6-10).

Wnioski: Na podstawie analizy rezultatow pracy zaobserwowano wzrost poziomu wynikow uzyskiwanych przez mężczyzn z niepełnosprawnością narządu ruchu w pływaniu. Może to świadczyć o dużym zainteresowaniu tą formą ruchu wśrod osob niepełnosprawnych, szczegolnie z mniejszym deficytem funkcjonalnym. Powinno się zwrocić uwagę na zwiększenie udziału w rywalizacji zawodnikow niskich klas startowych (1-5).

Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Abstract

Introduction. The increased level in competition and growing interest in sports for the disabled means that the training process of these people is the subject of studies and analysis. The main objective of this study was to identify the structure of the training loads in athletes with visual impairments in the 800 and 1500 m runs, in relation to sports performance. Material and methods. Seven annual trainings cycles of two groups (A, n=8, B, n=5) of athletes with visual impairments (medalists and participants of the Paralympic Games, World Championships, European Championships and multiple Polish masters), engaged in the 800 and 1500 m races, from the years 1998-2000 and 2003-2008 were evaluated. To analyze and evaluate the training loads, based on training logs two methods were used: Method I - based on an analysis of training documentation developed in the Department of Theory of Sport at the University of Physical Education in Warsaw. Method II - based on an assessment of the energy cost incurred for the implementation of training. Results. The analysis showed significant differences in the training process of the athletes of the two groups. The training of athletes from group A, was carried out mainly with the directed training method (61% of total load - TL) with low intensity - range 1 on a 5 point scale (74% TL), while group B - with special training method (76% TL) in second (2) range of intensity (71% TL). Conclusions. Training carried out by athletes from group B better reflects the specifications of middle distance runs, in comparison with group A, which could lead to a higher level of performance presented by the athletes of group B.

Open access

Izabela Rutkowska, Katarzyna Stranowska, Bartosz Molik, Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Krzysztof Koc and Kalina Kaźmierska

Abstract

Introduction: Looking for solutions to improve physical fitness of persons with sensory impairments, both in the context of physiotherapy and the creation of adapted physical activity programs in the physical education and extracurricular activities, it seems important to determine the effect of sensory impairments at the level of coordination motor abilities (CMA). The aim of the study was to compare the coordination motor abilities of blind, deaf and able-bodied boys aged 14-17.

Material and methods: The research was carried out on 37 boys: totally blind students (14) from the Education Centre for Blind Children in Laski, deaf students (18) from Deaf Institute in Warsaw and able-bodied peers (15) from School No.51 in Warsaw. The following tests evaluating selected CMA were used in the research: spatial orientation, dynamic balance, high frequency of movement, rhythmicising, kinesthetic differentmiation, connection of movement. Participants performed motor tests such as: walking into goal, turn on a bar of a gym bench, flat tapping, rhythmic drumming of upper and lower limbs, long jump at 50% capacity, transfering a gym stick, skiping with clapping under the knees, The Starosta Global Coordination Test. Measurements and evaluation of basic anthropometric parameters were done as well as Body Mass Index was calculated. Means of results of every tests were evaluated through nonparametric Krauskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance between the groups was determined using the U Mann-Whitney test.

Results: Coordination motor abilities differentiated the groups of boys - blind, deaf and able-bodied. The lowest level of the CMA was obtained in a group of blind boys and there were only little differences between the deaf and able-bodied participants. For the blind boys the most difficult test was rotation on the bench gym, which may indirectly indicate low level of dynamic balance.

Conclusions: The ability to rhythmic whole body and spatial orientation were the CMA that needed improvement in the group of deaf boys. There is no correlation between the results obtained in tests of CMA and body height, weight, BMI and age of individuals

Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Wiktor Przepióra, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Streszczenie

Wstęp: Zagadnienia związane z klasyfikacją w sporcie niepełnosprawnych to jeden z głównych obszarów badań w tym obszarze. Poszukuje się obiektywnych kryteriów oceny możliwości funkcjonalnych zawodników co ma umożliwić im sprawiedliwą rywalizację, w której wpływ na osiągany wynik ma przygotowanie do startu, a nie rodzaj i stopień niepełnosprawności.

Materiał i metody: Analiza wyników uzyskanych na Igrzyskach Paraolimpijskich (IP) w latach 2000-2012 miała na celu próbę oceny obowiązującego systemu klasyfikacji zawodników w lekkiej atletyce (LA) przez pryzmat uzyskiwanych przez nich wyników sportowych. Materiał badań stanowiły wyniki sportowe, na podstawie oficjalnych komunikatów z zawodów uzyskane przez zawodników z niepełnosprawnością narządu ruchu (NNR) w konkurencjach biegowych na IP w latach 2000-2012. Do określenia różnic wyników z IP pomiędzy klasami startowymi wykorzystano test U Manna-Whitney’a. Istotność statystyczną określono na poziomie p<0,05.

Wyniki: Największe zróżnicowanie wyników uzyskanych przez zawodników o zbliżonych możliwościach funkcjonalnych z NNR zaobserwowano wśród startujących na wózkach. Brak istotnych statystycznie różnic pomiędzy wynikami zawodników startujących w pozycji stojącej zaobserwowano w klasach T38 i T44 w biegu na 400m, w całym analizowanym okresie. Zbliżony poziom uzyskiwanych wyników zaobserwowano u kobiet z klas T53 i T54 uprawiających lekkoatletyczne konkurencje sprinterskie.

Wnioski: Specyfika dyscypliny jaką jest LA (duża liczba konkurencji o rożnym charakterze wysiłków) może powodować problemy w ocenie systemu klasyfikacyjnego, który nie uwzględnia konkurencji w której startują zawodnicy.

Open access

Waldemar Skowroński, Jagoda Rak, Bartosz Molik, Izabela Rutkowska and Grzegorz Bednarczuk

Abstract

Introduction: This study sought to identify and analyse the ranges, determinants and differences in physical activity levels of athletes with cancer. Materials and methods: The analysis included questionnaire responses provided by 169 out of 210 participants of the Onco-Olympics (80 out of 92 girls and 89 out of 118 boys). The mean age was 13.05 years for girls and 13.08 years for boys. The study group consisted of the following participants: 62 girls and 69 boys from Poland, 6 girls and 4 boys from Lithuania, 4 girls and 8 boys from Romania and 8 girls and 8 boys from Ukraine. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used in the study. Results: Girls demonstrated lower levels of vigorous (3.56 days per week, 88 minutes per day) and moderate (3.61 days per week, 96.5 minutes per day) physical activity than boys (3.91 days per week, 99.35 minutes per day, and 4.20 days per week, 103.7 minutes per day, respectively). Walking time per week was 16.18 hours for girls and 15.91 hours for boys, while sitting time per week was 5.17 hours for girls and 5.57 hours for boys. Athletes with neuroblastoma and bone cancer displayed the highest levels of vigorous and moderate physical activity, while its lower levels were found in athletes with leukemia, lymphoma and solid tumors. Physical activity levels differed depending on the type of cancer. Conclusions: Physical activity of Polish athletes with cancer does not depend on their sex, age in the examined range, body mass, body height or the BMI but it depends on the type of cancer. Drawing on the example of the group of athletes under investigation, it is reasonable to assume that recommended physical activity levels (expressed in MET - minutes per week) ought to be different for persons with different types of oncological diseases.

Open access

Izabela Rutkowska, Jolanta Marszałek, Joanna Piotrowska, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Waldemar Skowroński, Witold Rekowski and Ewa Kozdroń

Abstract

Introduction: The assessment of functional fitness of older people, who took part in different forms of activities e.g. in programs which are offered by UTW, together with the information about the fitness level, can have a great importance in optimization of motor activation of older people. The aim of this study is to evaluate the changes in the level of functional fitness and basic parameters of the anthropometric parameters of older women after 16-weeks activity program offered by University of the Third Age (UTW) at the Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw.

Material and methods: Ten women at the age of 72,0±5,40 who attended UTW 1,7±0,48 years took part in the study. Women participated in the activities 2-3 a week, and the major activities were Nordic Walking and gymnastics. Moreover they had a chance to attend Tai Chi, swimming and dancing classes. The Fullerton Functional Fitness Test was used to assess women’s functional fitness. Test was done twice - during the second week and at the end of first semester. Results were evaluated with the usage of norms described for particular test trials and age groups (Jones and Rikli 2002). Measurements and evaluation of basic anthropometric parameters were done as well as Body Mass Index was calculated.

Results: At the end of the cycle of activities, it turned out that women achieved better results during the fitness tests than they had after the first test. During evaluation with the usage of norms of Fullerton Fitness Test good level of aerobic endurance, strength and coordination of tested women was noted, however the flexibility test results gave evidence of negligence in this area. It was also discovered that participation in the cycle of physical activities might have been one of the elements that caused positive, considering health, changes in anthropometric parameters of tested women. Reducing of the body mass and the percentage of the fat tissue and regular physical activity had an influence on lean body mass increase.

onclusions: Physical activities done by UTW participants during the program, where the major activities were Nordic Walking and gymnastics, had the influence on improvement of their fitness and positive changes in their anthropometric parameters.

Open access

Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Andrzej Kosmol, Magdalena Bogdan, Bartosz Molik, Izabela Rutkowska and Grzegorz Bednarczuk

Game Efficiency of Wheelchair Rugby Athletes at the 2008 Paralympic Games with Regard to Player Classification

Purpose. The purpose of the study was to examine game efficiency of elite wheelchair rugby players in consideration of International Wheelchair Rugby Federation (IWRF) classification during the 2008 Paralympic Games played according to the old wheelchair rugby rules.

Basic procedures. A group of 77 athletes representing 8 national teams participated in the study. Each team played 5 games for 32 min each. Athletes who played for more than 8 min in total at the 2008 Paralympics qualified for the study. The seven IWRF player point classes were collapsed into four groups. The game efficiency analysis was based on the IWRF Statistical Reports. The following six game efficiency parameters were analyzed: played time (T), sum of all points scored (PT), assist passes (AS), assist blocks (AB), turnovers (TO) and steals (ST).

Main findings. The major finding of the study was that most differences in PT, AS, AB, TO and ST were found among all the examined groups (I-IV), except groups I and II. The played time (T) was not sensitive enough to identify significant differences among all the groups. This indicates that played time in the context of substitutions limited by classification point requirements does not reflect the differences between player classes.

Conclusions. Generally, there was a tendency for highpoint class players to perform better. The study findings point to the importance of analysis of game efficiency of elite wheelchair rugby players with regard to their IWRF classification during tournaments played according to the new wheelchair rugby rules.

Open access

Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Ida Wiszomirska, Jolanta Marszałek, Izabela Rutkowska and Waldemar Skowroński

Abstract

Introduction. In elite sport, athletes are required to maintain appropriate body posture control despite a number of destabilising factors. The functions of body posture control are monitored by the central nervous system that constantly receives information from the vestibular and somatosensory systems as well as from the visual analyser. Visual impairment may contribute to a decrease in the level of motor abilities and skills; however, it does not prevent visually impaired individuals from taking up physical activity. Therefore, this study sought to assess the static balance of visually impaired goalball players and shooters. Material and methods. The study included 37 goalball players and 20 shooters. A force platform was used to assess static balance. The study participants performed tests: standing on both feet with eyes open (BFEO) and closed (BFEC) (30 s), single left- and right-leg stance with eyes open (SLEO and SREO) as well as single left- and right-leg stance with eyes closed (SLEC and SREC). Statistical analyses were carried out using the following parameters: centre of pressure (CoP) path length [cm], CoP velocity [m/s], and the surface area of the stabilogram [cm2]. Results. No significant differences were found between goalball players and shooters in static balance levels. However, such differences were observed after taking into account the number of athletes who were capable of performing particular tests. Conclusions. The findings indirectly confirm that there is a correlation between the type of physical activity and balance levels in visually impaired individuals. Further research ought to include tests performed on an unstable surface.

Open access

Waldemar Skowroński, Witold Winnicki, Grzegorz Bednarczuk, Izabela Rutkowska and Witold Rekowski

Abstract

Introduction. Physical fitness affects motor and intellectual development. Having a wide range of motor skills makes it possible to learn about the surrounding world and expand one’s knowledge. In the case of persons with intellectual disabilities, mastering gross and fine motor skills is the core of their development and functioning in society. The aim of the study was to analyse the relationship between physical fitness, gross and fine motor skills, and the level of functioning in schoolchildren with intellectual disabilities. Material and methods. The study involved 62 subjects whose age ranged from 9 to 24 years. Due to the large size and homogeneity of the group, the results of 26 subjects were considered in the analysis: 12 girls and 14 boys with moderate intellectual disability. Physical disability as well as gross and fine motor skills were measured with the BOT-2, TGMD- 2, and Eurofit Special tests. The level of functioning in society was assessed with a specially designed ICF-based questionnaire. Results. The study showed that girls had better motor skills than boys; this was reflected in the participants’ level of functioning as girls displayed a higher level of functioning. Boys, despite better physical fitness, were ranked on a lower level of functioning. Conclusions. A relationship was found between gross and fine motor skills and the level of functioning, assessed with BOT-2 and TGMD-2. No relationship was found between physical fitness, assessed with Eurofit Special, and the level of functioning. Instead of using assessment tools for general fitness, one should measure specific motor skills when assessing physical and motor development in children with intellectual disabilities.