The aim of the investigation was to study the elastic properties and chemical composition of rock samples based on laboratory measurements. Three cuboid samples of diabase, granite and quartz were tested under laboratory conditions. The shape of samples is a cuboid with dimensions 0.1 × 0.05 × 0.05 m and the measurements were made in three directions. The Pundit Lab+ equipment was used for tests. The signal frequency value was 250 kHz. The propagation times of P- and S-waves were designated that allows to determine the elastic dynamic moduli values. The Japanese JEOL USA Scanning Electron Microscope was also used for tests. The chemical composition of rocks were determined by characteristic X-rays analysis. Obtained results show that the ultrasonic measurements and SEM are useful tools to assign properties of rocks. This knowledge makes easier recognition in preliminary stages during engineering study.