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  • Author: Iskra Cvetkovikj x
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Iskra Cvetkovikj, Slavcho Mrenoshki, Kiril Krstevski, Igor Djadjovski, Branko Angjelovski, Zagorka Popova, Aleksandar Janevski, Aleksandar Dodovski and Aleksandar Cvetkovikj

Abstract

Bovine tuberculosis is a chronic infectious disease in cattle caused mainly by Mycobacterium bovis and to a lesser extent by Mycobacterium caprae. The other members of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) can also cause the disease in domestic and wild animals and all of them have a zoonotic potential. The main purpose of the study was to determine the presence and distribution of the tuberculous lesions in reactor cattle, and to isolate and identify the causative agents of bovine tuberculosis in the Republic of Macedonia. Lymph nodes and affected organs from 188 reactor cattle slaughtered due to a positive intradermal comparative cervical tuberculin test were analyzed by detection of tuberculous lesions, followed by isolation and molecular identification of the isolated mycobacteria. The isolation was performed on selective media - Lowenstein Jensen with glycerol, Lowenstein Jensen without glycerol and Stonebrink medium supplemented with pyruvate. The molecular identification of the MTBC members was performed by analysis of the Regions of difference (RD1, RD9 and RD4) and detection of single nucleotide polymorphisms in the lepA gene for Mycobacterium caprae. Typical tuberculous lesions were detected in 62 animals (33.0%) and the lesions were most prevalent in the mediastinal lymph nodes (47.5%). The isolated mycobacteria in the MTBC were identified as Mycobacterium bovis and Mycobacterium caprae and were found in both animals with visible lesions (82.2%) and animals without visible lesions (27.7%). The slaughterhouse postmortem examinations and laboratory investigations should be included on regular bases in order to improve the National eradication program.

Open access

Aleksandar Cvetkovikj, Ljubica Rashikj, Irena Celeska, Elena Atanaskova Petrov, Branko Angjelovski, Iskra Cvetkovikj, Maja Jurhar Pavlova and Jovana Stefanovska

Abstract

A six-month-old Pomeranian male dog was referred due to a month long history of unformed, soft faeces and mild weight loss. Stool analyses by direct faecal smear, Zinc sulphate flotation and the Baermann concentration method revealed an infection with Strongyloides stercoralis. The dog was initially treated once with a combination drug of praziquantel, pyrantel and febantel (½ Drontal® Plus Tablets for puppies and small dogs; Bayer; i.e. 31.5 mg/kg bodyweight of febantel ). The treatment was repeated after 12 days with the same dosage for 3 consecutive days. The stool analyses performed 14 days and 3 months after the second treatment were negative for S. stercoralis larvae. The results suggest that a repeated treatment with Drontal® Plus Tablets is effective against S. stercoralis in dogs and has no adverse effects.

Open access

Kiril Krstevski, Ivancho Naletoski, Dine Mitrov, Slavcho Mrenoshki, Iskra Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar Janevski, Aleksandar Dodovski and Igor Djadjovski

Abstract

Bacteria from the genus Brucella are causative agents of brucellosis - a zoonotic disease which affects many wild and domestic animal species and humans. Taking into account the significant socio-economic and public health impact of brucellosis, its control is of great importance for endemic areas. The chosen control strategy could be successful only if adapted to the current epidemiological situation. This implies that a choice of appropriate diagnostic procedures for detection and typing of Brucella spp. strains are of essential importance. Significant advancement of molecular techniques and their advantages compared to classical methods, give strong arguments in promotion of these techniques as a powerful tool for comprehensive diagnostics of brucellosis. Considering this, the major tasks of the study were to select and implement molecular tests for detection and genotyping Brucella spp. and evaluate their performances using DNA from cultivated brucellae (islolates) and limited number of tissue samples from seropositive animals. The obtained results confirmed that implemented real time PCR for Brucella spp. detection, as well as MLVA-16 used for genotyping, have excellent analytical sensitivity (4.2 fg of Brucella DNA were successfully detected and genotyped). Furthermore, compared to bacteriological cultivation of Brucella spp., real time PCR and MLVA-16 protocols showed superior diagnostic sensitivity and detected Brucella DNA in tissues from which Brucella could not be cultivated. Based on the summarized study results, we propose a diagnostic algorithm for detection and genotyping of Brucella spp. bacteria. Routine use of proposed diagnostic algorithm will improve the effectiveness of infection confirmation and help for accurate evaluation of epidemiological situation.