Senem Ersavaş, Gülden Diniz, Hülya Tosun Yıldırım, Yetkin Koca, Dudu Solakoğlu Kahraman, Duygu Ayaz and Bengü Demirağ
Objective: Neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and Kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) play important roles in both immunity and cell proliferation. It was reported previously that they are overexpressed in various human cancers. The present study was undertaken to examine the expressions of NGAL and KIM-1 in Wilms Tumors.
Material and Method: Tissue samples of 50 Wilms Tumors were evaluated and underwent immunhistochemical staining for NGAL and KIM-1 protein expressions. The correlations between them, and some clinical prognostic factors such as tumor weight, stage and histological features were also evaluated.
Results: Twenty-three (46%) of the cases were male while 27 (54%) were female. The mean age was found to be 3.26±2 years. The average tumor size was 9.16 ± 2.9 cm in diameter and the average weight of the kidney was 478±312 gr. Thirteen (26%) cases were stage I, 18 (36%) cases were stage II, 7 (14%) cases were stage III, and 6 (12%) cases were stage IV. Thirty-nine cases were alive (78%), while 11 cases (22%) were deceased. Mean overall survival time was 68.2±39.5 (2-148) months. NGAL expression was negative in all tumors except the neutrophils within the tumors. KIM-1 expression was positive in 37 tumors (74%), while it was absent in 13 tumors (26%). Using Mann-Whitney U Analysis, KIM-1 expression was found to be associated with the stage of the tumor (p=0.027).
Conclusion: The preliminary data indicates that KIM-1 expression may be associated with stage in Wilms Tumor. However, further studies are needed to validate these pilot observations and to clarify the functional and mechanistic significance of this relevance.
Objective: In this study, it was aimed to describe the clinical, histopathological and genetic features of 20 patients with gamma sarcoglycanopathy confirmed by muscle biopsies and genetic analysis.
Material and Method: We retrospectively reviewed 20 patients from whom muscle biopsy specimens were obtained between 2007 and 2012. All patients were clinically diagnosed as muscular dystrophy and biopsy materials were collected from five different centers of neurological disorders. All DNAs were extracted from muscle tissues or blood samples of patients and genetic tests (mutation analyses for gamma sarcoglycan gene and deletion-duplication analyses for all 4 sarcoglycan genes) were performed.
Results: The mean age of the patients was 7.6 years (2 -21 years). Only one case (5%) was older than 14 years. The mean CPK level was 10311 U/L (1311 - 35000 U∕L). There were 4 siblings in these series. Expression defects of gamma sarcoglycan staining were determined in (15 males, and 5 females) all patients with muscle biopsy specimens. But only in 9 of them, disease-causing defects could be determined with genetic analyses.
Conclusion: The present study has demonstrated that both examination of muscle biopsy specimens and DNA analysis remain important methods in the differential diagnosis of muscular dystrophies. Because dystrophinopathies and sarcoglycanopathies have similar clinical manifestation.