Science has been searching for a long time for a reliable method for controlling the sex of mammalian offspring. Recently, the application of specific modern cellular methodologies has led to the development of a flow cytometric system capable of differentiating and separating living X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm cells in amounts suitable for AI and therefore, commercialization of this sexing technology. The aim of this work was to present the first results of heifers that introduce bovine AI with sex sorted semen, for the first time in Macedonia. Insemination with sex sorted cryopreserved semen (2×106 spermatozoa per dose) imported from the USA was done at two dairy farms in ZK Pelagonija. In total, 74 heifers (Holstein Friesian) were inseminated. Inseminations were carried out in a timely manner following a modified OvSynch protocol. During the insemination, the sperm was deposited into the uterine horn ipsi lateral to the ovary where a follicle larger than 1.6 cm was detected by means of transrectal ultrasound examination. Pregnancy was checked by ultrasound on day 30 after the insemination. Overall, the average pregnancy rate in both farms was 43,24% (40,54% and 45,95%, for farm 1 and farm 2, respectively). All pregnant heifers delivered their calves following a normal gestation length (274,3 days in average) and of the 32 born calves, 30 (93,75%) were female. In conclusion, since the first results from inseminations with sex-sorted semen in dairy heifers in Macedonia are very promising, the introduction of this technique may bring much benefit to the local dairy sector. Average pregnancy rate seems similar with results obtained following ‘regular’ inseminations, notwithstanding the relatively low number of spermatozoa per insemination dose. Due to the latter, we however recommend inseminations only to be carried out by experienced technicians followinga TAI protocol and ultrasound examinations of the ovaries prior to insemination.
The objectives of the present study were to examine the fatty acid (FA) profiles in serum and in the follicular fluid (FF) and the association between polyunsaturated fatty acid level (PUFA) and follicular growth dynamics following induced luteolysis in dairy cows. A total of 29 dairy cows (CL>25mm, follicle≈15mm) at d0 (start of the experiment) were submitted to ultrasound guided transvaginal follicular aspiration for FF collection from the largest follicle and were injected with 500 μg of cloprostenol. The cows were subdivided into Group A1 (n=11) and Group A2 (n=8) resuming follicular growth either from a secondary follicle less than or larger than 8.5mm, respectively, present at the moment of aspiration and Group A0 (n=10) not resuming follicular growth. Follicular development was monitored daily by ultrasonography until the next dominant follicle reached ≈15mm and was subsequently punctured in Group A1 and A2 (d1). Serum and FF samples for FA determination were taken at d0 from all cows and at d1 in Group A1 and A2. No differences were observed between the FA profile in serum nor in FF between sampling days. Regarding the PUFA levels, the serum linoleic acid (C18:2n6) levels at d0 and d1 were significantly higher than in FF, while alpha linolenic acid (C18:3n3) was lower in the serum than in FF, both at d0 and d1. At d0, a tendency for negative correlation between serum and the FF C18:2n6 with subsequent daily follicular growth rate was observed, while, at d1 there was a strong negative correlation between the serum C18:2n6 and daily growth rate (r=−0.71; p=0.0006). The present study revealed similarities of the FA profiles in the serum and in the FF and association between serum and FF PUFA content with the follicular dynamics after induced luteolysis.
We hypothesized that a single dose of PGF2α belatedly injected on day 8 after GnRH-1 in cows receiving a 7-day Ovsynch-56 protocol (GnRH – 7 days – PGF2α – 56h – GnRH – 16h – timed AI) will increase the proportion of cows with complete luteolysis. At day 35±3 postpartum, 70 lactating Holstein cows from one herd were scored for body condition and pre-synchronized with PGF2α and GnRH (3 days apart) and 7 days later submitted to an Ovsynch-56 protocol for first AI after random assignment to two treatments: (1) OV-7 (n=35) with an injection of PGF2α either on day 7; or (2) OV-8 (n=35) on day 8 after G1, respectively. Blood was collected before the first PGF2α, at day 7 and day 8 in OV-7 and OV-8, respectively, at AI and at 7 days after AI to assess progesterone concentration. Ten cows were classified as acyclic and were excluded from the analysis resulting in 60 cows (OV-8, n=27; OV-7, n=33). In total, more (P=0.01) OV-8 cows and more (P=0.04) primiparous OV-8 cows had complete luteolysis compared with their OV-7 herd mates. In addition, more (P=0.008) OV-8 cows with BCS<2.75 had complete luteolysis compared with their OV-7 herd mates, whereas no difference was observed between treatments among cows with BCS ≥2.75. In conclusion, delaying the application of PGF2α by 1 day reduced the percentage of primiparous cows and cows with poorer BCS having incomplete luteal regression at the time of AI.