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  • Author: Feng Xia x
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Successful Treatment with Triple Therapy of Amphotericin B, Voriconazole and Flucytosine on an AIDS Patients with Severe Cryptococcal Meningitis


A 35-year-old man (body weight = 63 kg) with AIDS complaining fever and headache after having commenced anti-retroviral therapy (ART) for a week was admitted to our hospital. Five lumbar punctures performed during 38 days could not confirm a cryptococcal meningitis (CM) based on staining or culture methods for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The disease quickly progressed with serious hearing/vision impairment and frequent onset of seizure and coma after being treated with corticosteroids for five days, and then CM was confirmed. Subsequent lumbar puncture showed elevated intracranial pressure as high as 870 mm H2O, even though treated with standard antifungal regimens for CM. His disease was finally controlled by a new triple therapy with amphotericin B (0.7 mg•kg-1•day-1, intravenously), flucytosine (100 mg/kg perday, orally in four divided doses), and voriconazole (200 mg every 12 hours) and ART containing lamivudine (300 mg/day), stavuding (30 mg, twice a day) and efavirenz (300 mg, orally every night). Although it is rare, negative CSF stain or culture for cryptococci in AIDS patients with CM can persist for a long time. Corticosteroids should be used cautiously when an effective anti-fungal therapy is not administered. Triple therapy with amphotericin B, flucytosine and voriconazole may be selectively applied in severe CM. Voriconazole can be co-administered with efavirenz with modified dosing

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Higher Viral Load and Prolonged Viral Shedding Period is Associated with Impaired Th17 Cell Response in Patients with H1N1 Influenza A


Objective To explore whether age, disease severity, cytokines and lymphocytes in H1N1 influenza A patients correlate with viral load and clearance.

Methods Total of 70 mild and 16 severe patients infected with H1N1 influenza A virus were enrolled in this study.

Results It was found that the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly higher viral loads and prolonged viral shedding periods compared with the patients over 14 years old and mild patients, respectively (P < 0.05). Moreover, the patients under 14 years old and severe patients displayed significantly lower Th17 cell frequency than the patients over 14 years old and mild patients (P < 0.01). The viral shedding period inversely correlated with the frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells. Additionally, the decreased concentration of serum TGF-β correlated with the decreased frequency of IL-17+IFN-γ-CD4+ T cells.

Conclusions Both younger and severe patients are associated with higher viral loads and longer viral shedding periods, which may partially be attributed to the impaired Th17 cell response.

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Treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma using simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy via helical tomotherapy: a phase II study



The aim of the study was to evaluate short-term safety and efficacy of simultaneous modulated accelerated radiation therapy (SMART) delivered via helical tomotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC).


Between August 2011 and September 2013, 132 newly diagnosed NPC patients were enrolled for a prospective phase II study. The prescription doses delivered to the gross tumor volume (pGTVnx) and positive lymph nodes (pGTVnd), the high risk planning target volume (PTV1), and the low risk planning target volume (PTV2), were 67.5 Gy (2.25 Gy/F), 60 Gy (2.0 Gy/F), and 54 Gy (1.8 Gy/F), in 30 fractions, respectively. Acute toxicities were evaluated according to the established RTOG/EORTC criteria. This group of patients was compared with the 190 patients in the retrospective P70 study, who were treated between September 2004 and August 2009 with helical tomotherapy, with a dose of 70-74 Gy/33F/6.5W delivered to pGTVnx and pGTVnd.


The median follow-up was 23.7 (12–38) months. Acute radiation related side-effects were mainly problems graded as 1 or 2. Only a small number of patients suffered from grade 4 leucopenia (4.5%) or thrombocytopenia (2.3%). The local relapse-free survival (LRFS), nodal relapse-free survival (NRFS), local-nodal relapse-free survival (LNRFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS) and overall survival (OS) were 96.7%, 95.5%, 92.2%, 92.7% and 93.2%, at 2 years, respectively, with no significant difference compared with the P70 study.


Smart delivered via the helical tomotherapy technique appears to be associated with an acceptable acute toxicity profile and favorable short-term outcomes for patients with NPC. Long-term toxicities and patient outcomes are under investigation.

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Should vasoconstrictors be considered in a cirrhotic patient with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding?


Varices manifest as a major etiology of upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with chronic liver diseases, such as liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. By contrast, non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding is rare. Pharmacological treatment differs between patients with variceal and non-variceal bleeding. Vasoconstrictors are recommended for the treatment of variceal bleeding, rather than non-variceal bleeding. In contrast, pump proton inhibitors are recommended for the treatment of non-variceal bleeding, rather than variceal bleeding. Herein, we present a case with liver cirrhosis and acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding who had a high risk of rebleeding (i.e., Child–Pugh class C, hepatocellular carcinoma, portal vein thrombosis, low albumin, and high international normalized ratio and D-dimer). As the source of bleeding was obscure, only terlipressin without pump proton inhibitors was initially administered. Acute bleeding episode was effectively controlled. After that, an elective endoscopic examination confirmed that the source of bleeding was attributed to peptic ulcer, rather than varices. Based on this preliminary case report, we further discussed the potential role of vasoconstrictors in a patient with cirrhosis with acute non-variceal upper gastrointestinal bleeding.

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