Jerzy Tys, Aleksandra Szopa, Justyna Lalak, Mariola Chmielewska, Anna Serefko and Ewa Poleszak
The objective of this review was to evaluate the botanical and pharmacological description of Petasites species. Petasides (butterbur) as a perennial shrub which was found in Europe and also in a parts of Asia and North America, has been widely used medicinally for centuries. At present, the main phytopharmacology uses for Petasides extracts are for prophylactic treatment of migraines, as well as an antispasmodic agent for bronchial asthma and pertussis. Furthermore, it has been used effectively in preventing gastric ulcers, and in urinary tract spasms and treating patients with irritable bladder. But still, there is a need for more studies on the potential applications of butterbur extract in medicine.
Aliya Aryzbekova, Konrad Tomasz Juszkiewicz, Donald Eduard Burgess, Andrzej Polski and Ewa Poleszak
Peptic ulcers are a serious problem worldwide, and affect about 4 million people each year. Their etiology is connected with the presence of Helicobacter pylori, the act of smoking, drinking alcohol, being stress, and taking excessively nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, as well as steroids. The most common symptoms are abdominal pain, nausea, chest pain and fatigue, while less frequent symptoms include vomiting and weight loss. Helicobacter pylori is responsible for about 80% of gastric and 90% of duodenal ulcer cases. In this work, an analysis is made of a correlation between stomach or duodenal ulcer and gender, residence and number of patients hospitalized in the Almaty hospital №1, from 2009-2012, in order to learn about trends in the incidence of these diseases in Kazakhstan. A total number of 950 patients with stomach and duodenal ulcers, in 2009-2012, were questioned. The patient’s residence, gender and stomach or duodenal ulcer problem were taken into account in the study. The result of this work reveals that the largest amount of hospitalized patients suffering from stomach or duodenal ulcers came from urban areas. Moreover, more women than men suffered from peptic ulcers. Furthermore, the number of patients admitted to the hospital due to duodenal ulcers did not show any variation throughout the study. However, the least number of patients suffering from gastric ulcers was noticed in December 2009, and the greatest was in October and November 2011. The obtained data show that ulcers are a serious problem in Kazakhstan.
Andrzej Polski, Karol Iwaniak, Karolina Sobotka-Polska, Magdalena Rogowska and Ewa Poleszak
With the rapid development of computer technology, gaming has become more popular, and young people spend more and more time playing such games. It is thought that this a major factor responsible for the lowered physical activity of today's society. For a better understanding of the issue, we assessed how many students spend their free time playing video games, and how this form of recreation affects their levels of physical activity. The investigation of the relationship between physical activity and playing computer games was undertaken via a questionnaire containing 16 questions, and this was applied to a representative sample of 138 students drawn from Lublin’s universities. The results of this show that males are more physically active (85% compared to 75% women). However, only 9% men and 13% women train every day. To keep the body in shape, the most common activity for the respondents is aerobics training (approx. 30%), walking and cycling. Such exercise is performed to improve or keep in shape, and as a form of relaxation. However, one third of all respondents play video games, 70% of these are males and only 16% are females. What is more, our results show that there was no correlation between level of physical activity and gaming. In both groups, about 80% of all respondents are physically active. Yet, among the players, there are more overweight people (28%), as compared to 10% in the non-player group. Still, players, in contrast to popular opinion, are more active than non-playing people. No association was found between playing computer games and health problems.
Andrzej Polski, Regina Kasperek, Karolina Sobotka-Polska and Ewa Poleszak
Pain is a symptom of many diseases and significantly affects the quality of life, so researchers are constantly seeking new substances to be used as analgesics. Other, easier way is to combine already known drugs which cause synergistic effects greater than additive, so that probability of drug-specific side effects can be reduced. Researchers showed that caffeine can be an effective analgesic adjuvant enhancing antinociceptive effect of ibuprofen in animals and humans. By using modern drug technology methods tablets containing well-soluble ibuprofen salt and caffeine can be easily prepared. Thanks to that combination, the therapeutic dose of ibuprofen can be lowered and the side effects may be reduced.
Regina Kasperek1, Krzysztof Galczynski, Magdalena Nalesniak, Karol Iwaniak and Ewa Poleszak
Suppositories with cocoa butter containing dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) without and with the addition of Span 80 and Tween 80 as surfactants with low and high HLB values were prepared. The physical properties and the drug content of all prepared suppositories were in accordance with the pharmacopoeial requirements. The release study tests in three dissolution media such as water, lactic acid solution at pH 4.2 and phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 were carried out. In acidic and alkalic media only about 10% and 27% of DHEA were released, respectively. The addition of Span 80 to the suppository mass did not improve the release process, but the addition of Tween 80 caused the increase in the amount of DHEA released in the acidic medium to about 35%. The data showed that rectal administration of suppositories with DHEA based on cocoa butter caused about 30% availability and after vaginal administration, only topical activity can be expected. By the addition of Tween 80 to the suppository mass availability of DHEA of about 35% from vaginal suppositories can be achieved.
Karolina Slawinska, Gabriela Bielecka, Karol Iwaniak, Sylwia Wosko and Ewa Poleszak
According to the World Health Organization estimates, approximately 10% of the world’s population is affected by depressive disorders. Furthermore, even in high-income countries, many people with depression are not treated, which can lead to serious health consequences and a global economic loss. Unfortunately, the current pharmacotherapy of depressive disorders is characterized by unsatisfactory efficacy and the therapeutic effect is accompanied by many side effects. For this reason, there is still ongoing worldwide research to find new antidepressant therapies. In recent years, many data have been shown that essential elements demonstrate the antidepressant action and increase the effect of antidepressants. In this paper we present the results from the preclinical and clinical studies published over the years which show the involvement of selenium and manganese in depressive disorders. In this article, the relationship between the amount of these microelements in a diet and depression is reviewed and what's more, the association among these elements in different biomaterial and their relations to depressive symptoms is presented. Additionally, we discuss the possible influence of selenium and manganese on modulating neurotransmitter system involved in depression.
Regina Kasperek, Lukasz Zimmer, Maria Zun, Dorota Dwornicka, Katarzyna Wojciechowska and Ewa Poleszak
The aim of the study was to investigate the modified release of a model substance, of tablets containing different types of Kollidon and particular additives. Additionally, the release kinetics and mechanism of prolonged release of certain tablet preparations were investigated. In this work, tablets containing different types of povidone (Kollidon CL, Kollidon 30, Kollidon SR and other excipients) were prepared by the direct compression technique. The results showed that tablets with fast disintegration and release should contain in their composition, Kollidon CL, lactose and Avicel, however, the use of β-CD instead of lactose or Avicel brings about a slight prolongation in the disintegration time of tablets and the release of an active substance. Furthermore, while other tablet compositions generated within this study must be considered as being prolonged release types, only two of these showed the best fitted mathematical models. The in vitro dissolution data reveal that the dissolution profiles of the two formulations, one containing Kollidon SR with the addition of Kollidon 30, and the second with HPMC K15M, Kollidon 30, Kollidon CL and lactose, best fitted the Higuchi model. Moreover, the release mechanism of these two formulations plotted well into Korsmeyer-Peppas, indicating a coupling of drug diffusion in the hydrated matrix, as well as polymer relaxation – the so-called anomalous transport (non-Fickian).
Katarzyna Wojciechowska, Maria Zun, Dorota Dwornicka, Katarzyna Swiader, Regina Kasperek and Ewa Poleszak
Caffeine is a methylxanthine typically found in the Coffee Arabica L plant. Generally, caffeine is well-known as a orally administered mild stimulant of the central nervous system. However, for cosmetic purpose, caffeine is an active compound ingredient, at 7% concentration, in several anticellulite products. The efficiency of this mode of delivery is not fully understood. Hence, the aim of the study was to ascertain the effectiveness of particular carriers to release this ingredient. In so doing, we prepared six creams based upon different oils (Sesame oil, Rice oil, Walnut oil, Coconut oil, Sweet almond oil and Jojoba oil), containing 5% of caffeine, and compared the release of the substance from the obtained preparations. Initially, all of the creams were subjected to a variety of physical tests, among these being for slippage and spreadability. Furthermore, their rheological properties were evaluated. Subsequently, the creams were tested for caffeine release. In the slippage and spreadability tests, the coconut oil-based cream was revealed as having the best parameters. However, the rheological tests showed that all of the preparations had the pseudoplastic character of flowing according to the Ostwald de Waele power law model. The power low index (n) for all the preparations was from 0.2467-0.3179 at 20°C and 0.2821-0.3754 at 32°C. At 20°C, the Sesame oil-, Walnut oil-, Sweet almond oil- and Jojoba oil-based creams were thixotropic, but at 32°C, thixotropy appeared only in the Walnut oil-based creams.
The release studies, conducted by way of an extracting chamber (according to Polish Pharmacoeia IX) in the Paddle Apparatus (according to Polish Pharamcopoeia IX), showed that the amount of released caffeine is the largest in the case of Jojoba oil-based cream, at 85.23% ± 0.8% (SD), and the least in the case of Coconut oil-based cream, at 62,78%± 0.87% (SD).
Dorota Dwornicka, Katarzyna Wojciechowska, Maria Zun, Regina Kasperek, Katarzyna Swiader, Michal Szumilo and Ewa Poleszak
Caffeine is well known alkaloid chemical compound belonging to the methyl-xanthines group. It is an active substance that is found in many cosmetic products, as it has a stimulating action on both the central nervous system and the metabolism. Commercially available topical formulations normally contain 3% of caffeine and 7% anticellulite products.
The aim of our work was to investigate the properties of four cream preparations. These consisted of 5% of caffeine and one of four different emulsifiers (GSC, Sodium polyacrylate, Emulsifying Base, MDS). In our work, we compared the physical properties (spreadability, slip and tenacity), the rheological structure of the resulting creams and the caffeine release from the obtained preparations. The results showed that the properties of these creams and their drug release depended upon the kind of the emulsifiers utilised. What is more, all preparations have a pseudoplastic character of flow and most of them have significant thixotropy. Furthermore, the amount of released caffeine is the largest from the MDS cream, and this emulsifier seems to be the most optimal in all the examined items.
Magdalena Rogowska, Karol Iwaniak, Andrzej Polski, Karolina Slawinska, Karolina Sobotka-Polska, Joanna Modrzewska and Ewa Poleszak
Metamizole is an effective non-opioid analgesic drug used in the treatment of acute and chronic pain. Due to induced potentially life-threatening blood disorders, metamizole was withdrawn from market in many parts of the world, however, it is one of the most popular analgesics in Poland that is available as an over the counter drug. Patients tend to prefer capsules over tablets, as they are easier to swallow and taste better. The powder-filled capsules also have greater bioavailability and require less excipients, as compared to tablets. Polymic excipients are mainly used in capsule filling, and have influence upon the physico-chemical properties of the hard gelatin capsules and the powder formulation. The aim of the study was to determine whether various combinations of polymers impact the disintegration time and pharmaceutical availability of hard gelatin capsules with metamizole sodium. The results of our work demonstrated that the 80% of all active substance was released in all tested formulations within 15 minutes. Herein, the capsule containing lactose monohydrate had the longest release (4% after 2 min.), while capsules containing mannitol had the fastest release (81.2% after 2 min.). Moreover, the addition of HPMC to capsules with lactose brought about a slight increase in the metamizole release rate, while the addition of PVP 30 to capsules with microcrystalline cellulose slightly accelerated release. This data suggests that the use of different polymers in capsules formulation brings about changes in the physical properties of powders and modifies the release profile of metamizole. In our study, the most preferred formulation was one containing microcrystalline cellulose (good powder properties and fairly fast release).