Ewa Pawlaczyk, Maria Bobowicz and Adolf Korczyk
Ewa M. Pawlaczyk and Maria A. Bobowicz
Progeny from nineteen family lines of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from the Tisovik Reserve growing in an experimental plot were analyzed based on 4 chloroplast microsatellite DNA loci and 12 morphological and anatomical needle traits. The Tisovik Reserve is located in Białowieża Primeval Forest, 120 km north of the natural range limit of this species, and embraces a small and isolated natural population of silver fir. The aim of this study was to determine genetic variation within and between progeny lines. Analysis of phenotypic variation showed that the traits which differed most among individuals were the needle width and the distance from resin canals to vascular bundle. Those traits, which differed most between the progeny lines, were the number of endodermic cells around the vascular bund and the weight of hypodermic cells. In Tisovik progeny, we detected 107 different haplotypes. In progeny lines, we detected more haplotypes than in maternal trees, and most haplotypes did not exist in maternal trees. This may be the result of pollen influx from other silver fir stands. Progeny from Tisovik showed a higher level of variability in comparison with maternal trees.
Ewa Maria Pawlaczyk, Alina Bączkiewicz, Katarzyna Buczkowska and Maria Anna Bobowicz
Progeny from 19 family lines of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) from a small, native and isolated population from the Tisovik Reserve (Belarusian part of Białowieża Primeval Forest) growing in an experimental plot near Hajnówka (Polish part of Białowieża Primeval Forest) were analysed in terms of 4 nuclear microsatellite DNA loci and 9 isozyme systems with 14 loci. The aim of this study was to determine the genetic variation within and between progeny lines. Analysis of isozyme loci showed that all progeny lines, except the progeny lines T6 and T16, were characterised by an excess of heterozygotes and 20% of the detected variation occurred between progeny. Progeny formed two groups. Microsatellite loci showed that 6 progeny lines demonstrated an excess of heterozygotes and 12 an excess of homozygotes. On an average, the population was in the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed that 14% of the detected variation occurred between offspring and the remaining 86% within progeny lines. The most distinct progeny line was Tl, where the highest number of alleles per locus was detected. Generally, progeny of Tisovik is characterised by high level of differentiation as the offspring of isolated population that have limited number of individuals to crossing (only 20). In some progeny line, the private alleles that are detected may be the result of pollination from Polish part of Białowieża Forest where in 1920s and 1930s of XX century had planted the seedling of silver fir of unknown origin. The substructuring of population is observed, and the detected deficiency of heterozygotes may be ostensible as a result of the Wahlund effect. Such pattern of genetic structure could also be an effect of harsh environmental conditions exerting selection pressure and modifying the genetic composition of this population.
Bartosz Łabiszak, Anetta Lewandowska-Wosik, Ewa Maria Pawlaczyk and Lech Urbaniak
The main goal of this work was to examine interpopulational needle traits variability of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) from four mountain, one foothill and three lowland, natural populations located in Poland. This choice of locations was motivated by the presumed different origins of mountainous populations and the necessity to demonstrate how closely they are related to lowland populations. Variation in the studied populations was determined using seven morphological traits of needles: 1 - needle length, 2 - number of stomatal rows on the flat side of a needle, 3 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the flat side, 4 - number of stomatal rows on the convex side of a needle, 5 - number of stomata per 2 mm of needle length on the convex side, 6 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the left side and 7 - number of serrations per 2 mm of the needle length on the right side. Biometric data were analysed statistically, and it was found that (i) needle traits differentiate studied populations; (ii) the postulated division of the population into two groups is reflected in the obtained results; and (iii) a particularly strong relationship was found between two relict pine populations from the Pieniny (Sokolica, Kazalnica, Czertezik) and Tatra Mts. (Wielke Koryciska), which may be the result of the common origins and history of these two populations