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E. Fras and M. Górny

The paper presents a solidification sequence of graphite eutectic cells of A and D types, as well as globular and cementite eutectics. The morphology of eutectic cells in cast iron, the equations for their growth and the distances between the graphite precipitations in A and D eutectic types were analysed. We observed a critical eutectic growth rate at which one type of eutectic transformed into another. A mathematical formula was derived that combined the maximum degree of undercooling, the cooling rate of cast iron, eutectic cell count and the eutectic growth rate. One type of eutectic structure turned smoothly into the other at a particular transition rate, transformation temperature and transformational eutectic cell count. Inoculation of cast iron increased the number of eutectic cells with flake graphite and the graphite nodule count in ductile iron, while reducing the undercooling. An increase in intensity of inoculation caused a smooth transition from a cementite eutectic structure to a mixture of cementite and D type eutectic structure, then to a mixture of D and A types of eutectics up to the presence of only the A type of eutectic structure. Moreover, the mechanism of modification of cast iron was studied.

Open access

E. Fraś, M. Górny and H. Lopez


The paper discusses the reasons behind current trends for substituting cast iron castings by aluminum alloys. In particular it is shown that it is possible to produce thin wall castings (control arms, cantilevers and rotors) made of ductile iron without the development of chills, cold laps or misruns, and with a strength to weight ratio of up 87 MPa cm3/g. In addition, austenitizing at 900 °C for 20 minutes and then austempering in a salt bath at 350 °C for 15 minutes promotes the development of a fully ausferritic matrix in thin wall castings with a the strength to weight ratio increase of up to 154 MPa cm3/g. Finally, it is shown that thin wall castings made of ductile or austemperded cast iron can be lighter and with superior mechanical properties then their substitutes made of aluminum alloy.